The Effect Of Recruitment And Selection On Organizational Performance
1.1 Background of the Study
The success and achievement of the objective of an organization depends on the performance and caliber of human resources that make up such organization. This fact influenced the recruitment, and selection practices with special emphasis on Dozzy group of companies.
Since the industrial revolution economies started growing speedily in the developed countries and later on this process of growing industries and markets expanded to the whole world which turned into large completion among big companies operating in both public and private sectors. The world turned into global village which encouraged movement of Knowledge, Skills and Abilities across the cultures in the different countries in the world that caused the researchers focus towards the human resource management field to address different aspects related to the employees behavior particularly recruitment and selection. Most organizations focus more on human assets rather than physical assets. An organization can be readily purchase equipment, manufacturing facilities, and most technologies, but the human talent are much hard to come by. Candidates who are able add value to their clients’ businesses shows the ability of a good recruitment company in searching talents. Human Resource may set strategies and develop policies, standards, systems, and processes that implement these strategies in a whole range of areas such as recruitment and selection.
There are two phases to make new selection of employees needed by the organizations, the first one is to generate a large pool of applicants and then make the best selection out of them. Recruitment is equally important to study because effectiveness of the selection directly depends on the how large and qualitative is the pool of applications. Djabatey (2012) opined that this scenario lends credence to the increasing attention being paid to the people aspect of organizational assets because the development of people, their competencies and the process of the total organization are the pivot of human resource management. Similar to this development is the contention in National University of Ireland (2006) that the continued growth and development of an enterprise depends on its ability to recruit and select high quality personnel at all levels in respective of the cost of such action.The position to be filled must be defined in terms of job description and job specification. Thus, according to Ekwoaba, etal(2015), recruitments and selections have become essential in organizations because individuals need to be attracted on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications.The more effectively organizations recruit and select candidates, the more likely they are to hire and retain satisfied employees. In addition, the effectiveness of an organization’s selection system can influence bottom-line business outcomes, such as productivity and financial performance.The need for recruitment and selection in any organization depends on the existing vacancies to be filled or new post to be created, human resource department makes some decisions before considering if the company should recruit, decisions like the number of vacancy to be created, the profit the company makes which determines if the company would be able to pay the workers to be recruited, the number of workers needed. According to Gary (2009), the recruitment and selection process starts with employment or personnel planning. It is the process of deciding what positions the firm will have to fill and how to fill them. It is therefore very glaring that managements must be trained, and advised in recruitment and selection matters especially interviewing. It is often claimed that selection of workers occurs not just to replace departing employees or add to a workforce but rather aims to put in place workers who can perform at a high level and demonstrate commitment (Ballantyne, 2009).
Bratton and Gold (2012), differentiate the two terms while establishing a clear link between them by stating that recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization. Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons more likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements. Recruitment and selection forms a core part of the central activities underlying human resource management: namely, the acquisition, development and reward of workers. It frequently forms an important part of the work of human resource managers – or designated specialists within work organization. Using the right selection methods one can ensure that the candidate does not only has the right skills for the job, but also possesses the right personality to fit into the existing organizational culture. Once that “right” person has been employed, the company has to ensure that the right incentives are put in place. However, recruitment and selection is characterized by potential difficulties. Generally speaking, the conducts of recruitment, selection processes are cost involved and such could be advertising cost, testing cost, interviewing, and training cost, placement cost. In view of these, there is much need for any ideal organization to exhibit the concept of seriousness, commitment, merit selection and organizational diplomacy in the conduct of recruitment and selection exercises.
Recruitment according to Stoner et al(2009), is a systematic and organized procedure where potential employees are obtained for selection and placement in the organization through a variety of sources. Sources of candidates like educational establishment or Institutions e.g. universities, polytechnics, colleges of education and Recruitment agencies, such as Author Andrew, Omoloye and Associate and online recruiting, advertising, outsourcing providers.After recruitment, selection process is the next step. The main purpose of selection is to choose individuals who are fit or qualified for the job from those that are available or responded to the advertisement or limitation to apply for the job vacancies, selection procedure involves the screening of candidates according to the progressive series of steps designed to eliminate those who in some ways are unsuitable. It involves submitting information or data on the applicant, aptitude test, interview and reference checks on the applicant and conducting physical or medical examination. Once an individual has been deemed fit to be employed, the person is offered an appointment letter and given the conditions of his/her appointment and responsibilities. The individual’s acceptance of the appointment is a contract to seal and accept the obligation of his/her appointment and perform his/her duties that assigned to him/her for certain remuneration. Orientation is the next process after selection. The candidates chosen are oriented on how things are done in the organization, the culture, philosophy, policy, mission , objectives of the organization , working hours, place of work, performance standards, benefits and facilities, and names of the immediate and other officers.Recruitment can be said to be effective if the strategy or method used by the organization works out for them perfectly well. The effect of recruitment can be measured by how many applicants generated from each of the recruitment sources. If more applicants are generated than there are positions to fill, the firm can be more selective. The problem is that more is not always better; the employer needs qualified, talented and hirable applicant.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Recruitment and selection is a difficult task for organizations, it is difficult for them to search, recruit, and select talented people in today’s tight labor market because ofthe problem faced such as human errors, favoritisms and bias in their decision and which is also seen among the top management which has become a major problem to the management and also fewer qualified talents available. This shortage leads to absolutely essential for organizations to conduct effective recruitment, selection, and retain quality talents.
Acquiring the right talent is becoming an increasingly complex and challenging activity. It is expensive, time consuming, and high cost of employee turnover in time, money, and lost productivity.
The cost of finding the right person to hire can be hefty. Business advisor, William G. Bliss names various potentially high costs in the process: advertisement, time cost of internal recruiter, time cost of recruiter’s assistant in reviewing resumes and performing other recruitment-related tasks, time cost of the person conducting the interviews, drugs screens and background checks, and various pre-employment assessment tests. The company finds it difficult because of the cost involvedand also they don’t follow the policy. They frequent personal connection more than professional means. Some of the employees that came into the organization are partial, disloyal, not committed and their obedience lies only to the people that brought them in and this affect the success of the organization.
The success of a business or an organization is directly affected by the performance of those who work for that business. There is a linkage between Human Resource practices, competitive strategy and performance. Underachievement can be a result of workplace failures because hiring the wrong people can be costly, it is important that conscious efforts are put into human resource planning.
Therefore, it is the problem of this study to look into the recruitment and selection policy and practices of Dozzy group of companies in order to find the extent to which is a divergencebetween the policy and practice to know whether they are doing what is in line with the policy and getting the right kind of person for the job.
1.3 Objectives of the study
- To identify if external sources of recruitment strengthens diversity of talent within the organization.
- To identify the recruitment practices used in selecting qualified talents in Dozzy Group of Companies.
- To examine the extent of bias in recruitment and selection exercise and its effect on employee productivity.
1.4 Research Questions
- Do external sources of recruitment strengthen diversity of talent within the organization?
- What are the various recruitment and selection practices in selecting qualified talents in Dozzy Group of Companies?
- Is there any significant relationship between bias in recruitment and selection exercise on employment?
1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses
This project is an attempt to find out how recruitment, selection and procedure is conducted in Dozzy group of companies. In this regard, the researcher formulated hypotheses. These hypotheses have null and alternative hypothesis.
Ho: External sources of recruitment have no significant relationship on diversity of talents in the organization.
Hi: External sources of recruitment have significant relationship on diversity of talents in the organization.
Ho:A recruitment and selection practice has no significant relationship on organizational productivity.
Hi:A recruitment and selection practices have significant relationship on organizational productivity.
Ho:Bias in recruitment and selection exercise has no significant relationship on employment
Hi:Bias in recruitment and selection exercise has significant relationship on employment
1.6 Significance of the study
This study is highly significant as the main focus of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of recruitment and selection practices in Dozzy Group of Companies. Recruiting staff is a very costly exercise. It is an essential part of any business and it pays to do it properly. When organizations select the right people for the job, train and treat them well, they tend to produce good results and also tend to stay with the organization longer. In such circumstances, the organization’s initial and ongoing investment in them is well rewarded. An organization may have the best resources, but if it does not have the right people, it will struggle to achieve the results it requires. Significance of this study will help firms especially Dozzy group of companies to adopt measures in the context of human resource in relation to recruitment, selection, and the productivity. The firm will have the opportunity to identity the benefits of these practices and challenges facing their recruitment and selection practices in their organization and find lasting solutions to them.
The importance of this study stems from the fact that employment of workers involves first of all a deliberate process of manpower planning to determine the right kind of workers and right number of workers required for efficient and effective operation of the organization work.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the study
Every research has its own challenges. Notwithstanding, this research had its own limitations. The geography of this research work is confirmed to Dozzy Group of Companies Onitsha. The study was focused on the investigation of recruitment, and selection practices in Dozzy Group of Companies Onitsha. This study covers two areas of the organization’s strategy for recruitment, and selection practices. These areas include the recruitment process, and the selection process. There are specific steps used to implement the organization’s recruitment process, and selection method in these areas. Job Analysis, Job Description, Job Specification, Selection Method, Interview Test, Recruitment Source, Internal source, External source, and Talents Qualification.Procedures will be assessed and several issues are found such as instruments of job analysis, recruitment process, internal and external recruitment and selection methods. These steps will be further discuss and analyze in this study.
In writing this research thus, one is bound to be confronted by certain constraints like time constraints, school schedules and financial handicap. At the company, getting the attention of the management, and other staff readiness to divulge information often turns difficult as most are completely engaged in their duties. Equally, the preparation and administering questionnaires all attracts cost which constituted to limit its spray. Due to the combination of studies and work the researcher also did had limited time, but these limitations did not affect the validity of the study.
1.8 Definition of key terms
To make a research work such as this comprehensive to even an average reader, it is every important to define some salient features involved in the theme. These salient terms are defined as follows:
- MANAGEMENT: The term management is defined as a process of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling material and non-material, or technology and physical resources toward achieving organizational objectives.
- RECRUITMENT: Is the process of finding and attempting to attract job candidates who are suitably qualified and therefore capable of filling vacancies in job positions effectively.
- SELECTION: it is the process of determining which job candidate or applicants suit the needs of the organization best.
- POLICY: A plan of action agreed or chosen.
- PRODUCTIVITY: Unit of output per work machine hour or total output/total input. It is the measure of how well resources are brought together in organization and utilized for accomplishing a set of results
- EFFECT: the state being operative, functional. It also means to go into operation, begin to function, to produce result.
- ORGANIZATIONAL: Structure of relationship so as to get the work done