1.1 Background of the study
Information communication technologies (ICTs) are information handling tools that are used to produce, store, and process, distribute and exchange information. These different tools are now able to work together, and combine to form networked world-which reaches into every nook and cranny of the globe (UNDP Evaluation Office, 2001). It is an increasingly powerful tool for participating in global markets, promoting political accountability; improving the delivery of basic services; and enhancing local development opportunities (UNDP, 2006). According to Ogunsola (2005) ICT “is an electronic based system of information transmission, reception, processing and retrieval, which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live”. It can be used to access global knowledge and communication with other people (Ogunsola, 2005). Students who use ICTs gain deeper understanding of complex topics and concepts and are more likely to recall information and use it to solve problems outside the classroom (Apple Computer, 2002).
In addition, through ICT, students extend and deepen their knowledge, investigation, and inquiry according to their needs and interest when access to information is available on multiple levels (CEO Forum on Education and Technology, 2001). Information communication technology (ICT) has no doubt changed the face of teaching and learning globally. And serious nations are taking the advantages inherent in ICT to impact on the educational sector. Though Nigeria is also making efforts to join the ICT fray, these efforts appear to be ineffective. Computer laboratories are largely non-existent in many public schools across the country. And where they exist, they are nothing to cheer. Due to this general neglect and other factors, comprising corruption, outdated curriculum, ill-motivated teachers, materialism and academic laziness on the part of Students and Teachers, the nation has been reaping mass failure in public examinations. Arising from this, stakeholders are calling on government to provide basic facilities including ICT-driven teaching aids for the nation’s educational system (The Punch Newspaper 2012).
Therefore, the Impact of ICT in Nigeria and any other developing society especially in Anambra Secondary Schools can’t be overemphasized. It is very pertinent if one can note that technological advancement has shown lights to the dark paths of students all over the globe.
As part of the IT curriculum, learners are encouraged to regard computer as tools to be used in all aspect of their studies. In particular, they need to make use of the multimedia technologies to communicate ideas, describe projects and order information in their academic work.
It also has been shown that if some secondary schools advance by using ICT tools, educational development will be enhanced in the schools and student’s academic output, performance and societal impact will be on the increment. Therefore, it is important to state that government at all levels needs to do a lot in the area of ICT development on our educational sectors.
Christian Religious Studies is the subject that embraces morals, virtues, norms and mutual fellowship with people in the society. It can be called the subject of humanity. It also promotes godly relationship with God and man. It has been one of the subjects that try to foster peace and unity among diverse cultures in the society as well as enhance growth and development in general. Under the educational curriculum, Christian Religious Studies is a core subject for all art students at the senior secondary school level (NPE, 2013). It is a compulsory subject for students who wish to study humanity at the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE). In trying to emphasize the importance of Christian Religious Studies, Okon (2010) said that it is used to regulate the behavioral activities in the society as to what is good and godly, which the society uses to foster peace and maintain law and order as well. As a result of the importance attached to the subject, teachers make conscious effort using relevant teaching strategies to teach the subject. But their efforts are not encouraged due to the poor performance of students in Christian Religious Studies in WAEC and NECO examinations. Thus, there is the need to try some other ways of teaching Christian Religious Studies in secondary schools, hence, the introduction of ICT.
Information and communication technology is a term that means different things to different people. Wertlen (2014) defines ICT as a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and or disseminate information. Teaching with ICT have been reported yielding positive results by the way of improving academic performance nearly in all subject areas; and Christian Religious Studies will not be left out. It is also widely acknowledged that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be used to improve the quality of teaching and learning at all levels of education. In fact, ICTs are becoming natural part of man’s daily life; thus their use in education by teachers and students is becoming a necessity. Presently in Nigeria, Christian Religious Studies teachers at secondary school level still retain the old conservative teaching approach, with the teacher acting as the repertoire of knowledge and the students, the dominant recipients. Traditionally, educational practices no longer provide students with all the necessary skills to survive economically in today’s workplace. The use of ICT tools in teaching Christian Religious Studies will enable the creation of new and effective learning environment which may quicken the pace of learning by students. Proper teaching and learning with ICT in our secondary school will invigorate the secondary schools’ educational process and hold the promise of excitement for the students. Nwokenna (2007) states that ICT can help students understand other curricula by helping them to think in new ways and thus improve intellectual power. Nowadays, schools or learning institutions provide computer and information technology as the learning materials to gain knowledge and experience. Students now have more understanding during teaching process. Besides, teachers can attract the students’ interest in learning process and they understand more if they learn by using something that will attract their interest (Lubis, Embi, Yunus, & Wekke, 2009). Therefore, by implementing ICT technologies in Christian Religious Studies’ teaching process, it can improve the students’ interest and also creative thinking; ICT plays some important roles in Christian Religious Studies which are to assist teachers in teaching, provide them with tools to illustrate some points or processes as well as to enable the students to learn effectively.
Statement of the Problems
Obviously, there is a rapid increase in the implementation of ICT tools in so many sectors of the nation and globe. This rapid increase of computer (ICT) usage points to the needs of improving the literacy of students especially in their secondary school education level. Problems and challenges faced by secondary education without the help of the tools of ICT are therefore numerous.
Prior to the present century where the advance of Information communication Technology has taking the lead in reducing the stress of human beings especially students, people suffer in educational researches and productivity. Meanwhile, one could have just logged into an information search website (www.google.com) to update him or herself with whatsoever research information he or she seeks if one is ICT equipped. Our students are faced with High stress and cost of Information search and retrieval in the offline library system (OLS) where no computer exists. Consequently, the time it will take a secondary school researcher to conduct his or her research in the offline mode tends to a period of 1 to 2 years.
Furthermore, the processing of student’s results manually has been the major challenge faced by form teachers of our secondary schools which cumulate to poor students’ result management.
Lots of files are also being misplaced through the manual record system used in our secondary schools instead of the Database Management System (DBMS) which has the ability to store and retrieve data in an automated form with access authentication and low redundancy functionality. These summed up to the reason why the researcher embarked on this research work “Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on secondary school education” in order to expose and justify the impact of ICT on secondary schools in Anambra state and procure viable recommendations to evoke the responses of the three tiers of government to equip our secondary schools with ICT-Driven education technological tools such as; E-Library, Computer Laboratory, Online Research Center, Projectors etc.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is Impact of information and communication technology (ICT) On secondary school students in CRS in Anambra state
The specific objectives are;
- The extent to which computer is needed in planning and implementing CRS educational programs
- The extent to which computer enhances the quality of crs
- The usefulness of computer in school administration
- The problems associated with the use of computer by secondary school students
- The negative effect of computer usage in instruction and learning
- The academic impact of computer on secondary school students in CRS
1.4 Significance of Study
This research “The impact of ICT on Secondary Education in Anambra State” is quite significant in that there is need to improve the quality of teaching and learning in schools within Anambra State using Ogbaru Local Government Area as a reference point. Therefore, the significance of this study can be channeled thus;
The use of various ICT-based software and Computer Based tutoring programs can aid the teachers in teaching the students and also aid them in student’s assessment and testing.
The joy of every parent is to see the child perform wonderfully well both in school and at home. Since ICT tool can positively aid students’ learning outcome, it will foster the happiness and wellbeing of the parents at home. This study can also influence the ICT literacy level of parents at home since they would want to procure ICT tools for the student’s practice at home thereby having computers installed and used at home.
ICT knowledge and computer education will help the child to be literate otherwise informed and belong to this present innovative and ICT-driven society. It will also help him to be equipped for the future challenges envisaged in the digitized future century. Hence, the child will be able to fit in appropriately into our highly, dynamic and enthusiastic modern world. It will also help the teachers to develop online libraries through which useful educational books and materials can be accessed using the internet. The students will also be exposed to the uses of computer for information search and retrieval using the e-library or the internet (Cyber Cafe) which will foster their level of information literacy.
To school Administration
ICT is presently useful in administrative settings. Since the computer was designed to make our Job easier and lighter, its use and efficacy in administrative job execution is numerous ranging from teacher’s salary schedule computation to result computing system which drastically reduces the sufferings of the teachers and administrators.
To curriculum planners
ICT is presently a useful tool in promoting and enhancing qualitative curriculum planning. ICT tools are being used to determine the best input for the students so as to aid a reasonable learning outcome which will enhance the realization of the purpose and goal of education.
1.5 Scope of Research
This research work “impact of information and communication technology in teaching and learning CRS in junior secondary school. The some schools were covered with a particular reference to problems confronting ICT implementation and its suggested solutions, administration of schools, their educational planning and implementation.
1.6 Research Questions
- To what extent is computer needed in planning and implementing CRS educational program?
- To what extent does computer enhance the quality of teaching and learing CRS ?
- What is the usefulness of computer in school administration?
- What are the problems associated with the use of computer by secondary school students in CRS
- What are the negative effect of computer usage in instruction and learning CRS?
- What are the academic impacts of computer on secondary school students in CRS?
H1: The impact of ICT on education will bring about positive change in secondary schools in Anambra State.
H0: The impact of ICT on education will bring no change and positive influence to secondary schools in Anambra State.