THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN NIGERIA

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THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Globalization is one of the major phenomena of our times and its scope is very extensive and versatile affecting factors such as economics, political, cultural, lifestyle and most especially sciences and technological advancements

The process of globalization is said to include the information technology evolution characterized by advancement in electronics, computers and telecommunications made possible by the scientific and technological breakthroughs in miniaturization of integrated circuits, transistors and semi – conductors (Mike 1999:343).

Emerging technologies are playing a vital role in allowing globalization of economic and social activities to thrive. It is correct to say that the era of globalization has brought about the rapid spread and application of computers, the internet, satellite and the mobile phones innovations in the world, particularly in Nigeria where communication has been difficult and communication facilities were inadequate in our major cities, semi-urban and rural areas. Presently, with the introduction of mobile phones, many rural areas now have access to communication facilities and they communicate easily with the rest of the world.

It is important to note that globalization does not eliminate the scope and eliminate the scope and activities or nation or a state, but fundamentally redefines its role and affects its operations. The real issue today is not the debate about whether globalization is real or not, or whether it is desirable or not, but to analyse how the emerging technologies can be better channeled to promote more growth, more trade, greater modernization and better living standards of Nigerians with the aims of helping the country to re-emerge from its present social and economic difficulties. The challenges facing our nation are complex and they required good visioning, sound strategic plans that will correctly identify viable development paths and to resolve to translate such strategic plans into meaningful and fruitful and efficacious action (Abhulimen, 2000).

Globalization and growth of information technology and other emerging technologies do not imply the local production of technology hardware. Many developing countries like India and Malaysia have embraced the emerging technologies, particularly information and communication technology (ICT), and are experiencing unprecedented economic growth as a result of this. Many developing countries however have yet to integrate successfully into global economy.

Some 2 billion people around the world particularly in Sub – Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and the former Soviet Union live in countries that are slow in getting onto the train and are thus being left behind. These countries have been unable to increase their integration into the global economy: their ratio of trade to GDP is either maintaining a flat trend or in some cases actually declining. On average, these economies have contracted; poverty has increased and education levels have arisen less rapidly than in the more globalized countries. (Abhulimen, 2002).

Considering the evolution in information and communication technology (ICT) in Malaysia, India, South Africa and other developing countries with remarkable achievement and comparing their potentials with that of Nigeria, one can say that Nigeria has a better opportunity of evolutionalizing its information and communication technology (ICT) sector than those countries mentioned above. This is obvious, with its teeming population of unemployed graduates, a vibrant labour force, rich crop of high netwoth of individuals imbued with different entrepreneurial spirit, all that is needed is very much available, but the stepping stone of information and communication technology (ICT) evolution is the schools.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Emerging technologies as a result of globalization have effects on economic and social activities of nations, particularly in the area of information and communication technology (ICT). Therefore, the purpose of this research is to find out how some developing countries embraced information and communication technology? Does location of country affect its development in information and communication technology? What are the basic facilities needed to have a viable information and communication technology sector? What are the enabling policies and infrastructures for effective and efficient information and communication technology in Nigeria? These and many other questions are raised from the problem areas that require solutions to enhance the effective assessment of the impact of globalization on information and communication technology in Nigeria. It is hoped that this study will provide the required solutions for effective assessment.

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

For every action there are objectives. Therefore, the objective of the study is to examine the effect of globalization on information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria. And to assess and help Nigeria to be prepared to reap the ample economic and social benefits offered by the emerging information and communication technology that links the whole world together as a global village.

To achieve these objectives, the following were examined:

  1. The awareness of the public on Information and Communication Technology in the country.
  2. The availability of the required facilities for the full application of Information and Communication Technology in Nigeria.
  3. The availability and adequacy of government of policies and strategies for the effective application and utilization of Information and Communication Technology.
  4. The pricing strategies used for the services provided through the Information and Communication Technology in Nigeria.
  5. To suggest how to enhance the effective application of the Information & Communication Technology to achieve adequate communication linkages in all aspects of human endeavour towards improving our standard of living in Nigeria.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  
1.1 Introduction  
1.2 Statement of the Problem  
1.3 Research Objectives  
1.4 Scope of the Study  
1.5 Hypothesis  
1.6 The Methodology of the Study  
1.7 Limitation of the Study  
1.8 The Significance of Study  
1.9 Definition of relevant Terms  
  Footnotes  
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  
2.1 Introduction  
2.2 Literature Review  
2.2.1 Impact of Globalization on Information and Community Technology (ICT) in
  Malaysia  
2.2.2 Impact of Globalization on Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
  in South Africa  
2.2.3 Impact of Globalization on Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
  in India  
2.3 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Evolution.  
2.3.1 Information and Communication Technology evolution in Nigeria  
2.3.2 Information and Communication Technology evolution in Malaysia  
2.3.3 Information and Communication Technology evolution in South Africa  
2.3.4 Information and Communication Technology evolution in India  
2.4 Theoretical Framework  
2.4.1 Concept of Globalization  
2.4.2 Merits and Demerits of Globalization  
2.4.3 Merits and Demerits of Information and Community Technology (ICT0  
2.4.4 The Unique Characteristics of Information and Information Technology (ICT)
2.5 Information and Communication Technology for Specific  
  Developmental Goals……………………………………………………. 28
2.5.1 ICT for Health……………………………………………………………… 28
2.5.2 ICT for Education…………………………………………………………. 31
2.5.3 ICT for Economic Opportunity…………………………………………… 33
2.5.4 ICT for Empowerment and Participation……………………………….. 36
2.5.5 ICT for the Environment…………………………………………………. 38
2.6 Summary…………………………………………………………………… 40
  Footnotes…………………………………………………………………… 43

 

CHAPTER THREE: BACKGROUND OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN NIGERIA

3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………… 45
3.2 Communication in Nigeria Before the Introduction of Global  
  System Mobile (GSM)…………………………………………………….. 45
3.3 ICT Objectives in Nigeria………………………………………………….. 45
3.4 National Information Technology Policy…………………………………. 46
3.5 Benefits of Information and Communication Technology to Nigeria…. 60
3.6 Problems of ICT in Nigeria………………………………………………… 61
3.7 Summary……………………………………………………………………. 61
  Footnotes……………………………………………………………………. 63
CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  
4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………… 64
4.2 General Research Methods………………………………………………… 64
4.3 Research Methods used in Data Collection………………………………. 67
4.4 Data Collection Procedures………………………………………………… 69
4.5 Methods used in Analyzing Data…………………………………………… 71
4.6 Summary …………………………………………………………………….. 72
  Footnotes……………………………………………………………………… 73

 

CHAPTER FIVE: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS & FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………….. 74
5.2 Impact of Liberalization of Nigerian Telecommunication Industry…….. 74
5.3 Global System Mobile (GSM) Roll-Out ………………………………….. 75
5.4 Growth in Telephony and TeleDensity in Nigeria……………………….. 76
5.4.1 Growth in Internet Users & Penetration, Vsat Network…………………. 77
5.5 Impact of Competition on Tariff……………………………………………. 78
5.5.1 Changes in Connection & Airtime Charges for Mobile Phone in Nigeria… 79
5.6 Infrastructure Expansion and Revenue Generation…………………….. 80
5.7 Other Developments in the IT Sector…………………………………….. 81
5.8 The Findings of the Research Study ……………………………………… 82
5.8.1 General Discussions on the Implications of the Findings………………. 84
5.9 Summary …………………………………………………………………….. 86
  Footnotes…………………………………………………………………….. 87
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  
6.1 Introduction………………………………………………….  
6.2 Summary  
6.3 Conclusions  
6.4 Recommendations  

 

 

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