The Impact of Smart Board Technology In The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Computer Studies
Background to the Study
Much attention has been provided to the use of ICT in educational institutions, including schools and universities. Many studies were conducted about such use. Many studies- e.g. Hussain et al. (2017)- suggest that the use of ICT can significantly improve students’ learning outcomes, such as achievement and retention.
Many educators recently make use of smart board. Smart board is a touch sensitive screen that works in conjunction with a computer and a projector. The board is a special type of interactive tourch sensitive screen that can be used to collaborate and communicate with students in the classroom; or colleagues over the internet where there is electricity, an outlet to plug a computer and a projector. A Smart board can be used to enhance the quality of instruction delivery and increase clarity and degree of detail of a lesson.
A Smart board technology introduced in (2009) had dual touch interactive smart board. The dual touch smart board accepts two simultaneous touches, on two separate sides of the surface. Smart Board is different from tablet computing \which commonly displays images. The Smart Board operates as part of a system that makes use of an interactive whiteboard, a computer, projector and interactive software commonly called Smart notebook or collaborative software. The components are connected wirelessly, via USB or special cables. A projector connected to the computer displays images on the Smart board.
Computer technology dramatically changed every aspect of the society including education, marketing among others. The change presupposes the need for examinations on how best to utilize smart board in education to enhance proper understanding by the learners.
As computer technology has continued to evolve, its tools or devices have become increasingly complex. Michael Dertouzos (1997) refers to the importance of computer interfaces with other devices and to the development of “Smart tools” which would be components in intelligent rooms, where computer will be embedded in all aspect of one’s environment. Seymour (1995) describing the role of smart board in education coined the term “mathematics” to indicate the manner in which students learn as opposed to the manner in which educators teach. The author further stressed the importance of the board as helping students in Piaget, and Vygotsky (1993) stated that allowing students control their learning process affords them the opportunity to collaborate with one another which subsequently encourages them to interact with computers and other smart devices educators can use Smart Board in the classroom in the context of new ideals and views in the learning process.
Solvie (2001) investigated the correlation between the use of a Smart Board as a delivery tool for literacy instruction in a first grade classroom and students’ attention and participation in the literacy lessons. The study found out that Smart Board interactive board created enthusiasm for individualised learning among students. Sovie (2004) in a study on smart board and its effect in students learning reported that the Smart Board effectively engaged students in literacy learning. In addition, Cox et al (2003) also found out that Smart Board allows teachers to gain deeper understanding of their students’ needs while students are better able to learn through collaboration with each other. Kent (2003), indicated that teaching with interactive Smart Board is more fun, enjoying, exciting, and impacting on the speed and depth of learning.
Smart Board appeals to both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated students. According to a case study of the Jennings school District (2005) in St. Louis missiouri, Dr Terry stewart and his staff believed that students’ performance should not be defined by test scores alone but also by attendance levels, motivation and behaviour. The author further stated that putting Smart Board in the hands of properly trained staff improves classroom enjoyment and motivation, particularly on the part of extrinsically motivated learners. It also leads to less student truancy.
. Bell (1998) added that answers to opened questions indicated that students were more involved, attentive and motivated when lessons were taught using smart board rather than any other teaching methods. Blanton and Helms-Breazeale (2000) in their study indicated that if students are given the opportunity to view someone they like or respect; demonstrate behaviour they have acquired, then they stand a better chance of acquiring that behaviour. The Smart Board allows the students to watch peer leaders prompt and perform the appropriate behaviour which made the ownership of those behaviour much more enticing. This is because Students with short attention span can attend any situation as long as it is on the television screen.
In addition to making learning more enjoyable and interesting for students, Smart Board intrinsically motivated the students to volunteer to demonstrate knowledge on the Board in front of their peers as a means of showcasing individual achievement. Extrinsically motivated students are enticed by the “wow factor” of the Smart Board and are motivated as a result of the enjoyment they experience from using the board. With the use of Smart Board, teachers develop many creative ways to capture students’ attention and imagination. Bush et al. (2004), found that Smart Board made teaching more visual and learning more interactive which in turn, encourages greater participation of the students, thus improving their motivation and concentration.
According to Cunningham et al. (2003), it is the visual nature of the Smart Board that keeps students on task as everyone in the classroom becomes more attentive watching the acts. Smith (2000), reports that 78 percent of students observed were motivated by an interactive Smart Board and experience increased understanding of subject matter when it was shown visually on a Smart Board instead of simple explanation. Smart Board promotes class discussion and improve students’ explanation and presentation skills.
Salintri, Smith and Covis (2002), states that sustained motivation is key to improving learning outcomes. This is because the use of text and pictures, animations and videos promotes visual learning. Pugh (2001) also found out that the interactivity and visuals of interactive Smart Board are complementary when teaching students with specific learning difficulties or disabilities. Miller et al .( 2005) found out that interactive Smart Board provide a clear focus on the classroom supports students understanding by reducing behavioural problems from frustration that makes the learners unable to keep up with the lesson. Many courses currently present no more than electronic versions of traditional classes without face to face interaction between instructor and students. These electronic courses often contain web materials that lack significant level of creativity or interactivity. Cognitive research suggests that the addition of smart board can actually improve the learning process if certain methods are employed. By using auditory and visual methods of presenting information, students can process that information more quickly thereby fostering an enhanced learning process. Yet it is not clear whether such online learning environment enhance learning outcomes of students or even meets the level of success of traditional classroom