The impact of staff development on employee job performance
1.1 Background of the Study
In the fast pace changing world of business and environmental uncertainty, organizations realize its limitation of dealing with new challenges and should therefore invest in training programs to make their employees competent enough to face uncertainties and take effective decision in time and also remain competitive in the market (Tai, 2006). Effective training of staff is beneficial for the firm in variety of ways, such as, it plays a vital role in building and maintaining capabilities, both on individual and organizational level, and thus participates in the process of organizational change (Valle et al. 2000). Moreover, it enhances the retention capacity of talented workforce, hence decreasing the unintentional job rotation of the workers (Shaw et al. 1998). Furthermore, it indicates the firm’s long-term commitment towards its workers and increases the employee’s motivational level (Pfeffer, 1994). All these contributions lead to achieving competitive advantage (Youndt et al.1996) and to an enhancement in employee performance and organizational productivity (Bart el, al. 1994).
Staff development both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization. Therefore, training can be put in a contact relevant to public sector administrators. However, knowledge is the ability, the skill, the understanding, the information, which every individual requires in order to be able to function effectively and perform efficiently (Mamoria, 1995)
Abiodun (1999) submitted that: Training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside organization.
Adeniyi (1995) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore, provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge. In appreciation of this fact, public sector organizations conduct training and development programmes for different levels of their manpower.
Usually, before training or development programmes are organized efforts are being made through individuals and organizational appraisals to identify the training needs. After the training and development programmes, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the need, which had been identified. It is worthy of mention that organization development follows the development of individual who form the organization. It follows that no organization becomes effective and efficient until the individual have and apply the required skills and knowledge. Training has been observed as part of human development. Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and change over time. But at all levels of development, the three essential ones are for people to live a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge through training, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available many other opportunities remain inaccessible (Baruch, 2006).
According to human development experts is clearly only one option that people would like to have, albeit an important one. Development must therefore be more than just the expansion of income and wealth. (HDR 1990) since administering involves the creation and maintenance of an environment for performance, working closely or in isolation towards the accomplishment of common goals, it is obvious that administrators cannot be successful without well skilled and well trained people. The importance of incorporating training into organizational or institutional roles the staffing of these roles and the entire process of direction and leading people must be premises on knowledge and skills.
The need for improved productivity in organization has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. However, the need for organizations to embark on staff development programme for employees has become obvious. Absence of these programmes often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness (Arnoff, 1997).
Oribabor (2000) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth, also Isyaku (2000) postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one. Man is dynamic in nature, the need to be current and relevant in all spheres of human endeavor’s make staff development a necessity, to keep track with current event and methods.
Griffin (1978) has drawn the attention of the entire sundry to the inestimable value of training and development. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively. Scholars, experts, social scientist and public sector administrators now recognize the fact that training is obviously indispensable not only in the development of the individuals but also facilitate the productive capacity of the workers. Training is not coaxing or persuading people to do what is wanted but rather a process of creating organizational conditions that will cause personnel to strive for better performance.
Among other schools that highlighted the usefulness of training are Akintayo (1996), Oguntimehin (2001) and Graig (1976). They identified the functions of training as follow: increase productivity, improves the quality of work; improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine; reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc. It brings incumbents to that level of performance which needs the performance for the job; enhance the implementation of new policies and regulations; prepares people for achievement, improves man-power development and ensures the survival and growth of the enterprise.
Pitfield (1982) is of the opinion that the objectives of training are to: provide the skills, knowledge and aptitudes necessary to undertake required job efficiently develop the workers so that if he has the potentials, he may progress, increase efficiency by reducing spoilt work, misuse of machines and lessening physical risks. Chris Obisi (1996) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. Also Akinpeju (1999) postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one. The need to perform one’s job efficiently and the need to know how to lead others are sufficient reasons for training and development and the desire to meet organizations objectives of higher productivity, makes it absolutely compulsory.
1.2 Statement of the problem
It is a well known fact that training and development enhances worker performance and productivity in organizations (G.A Cole, 2002). Many organizations in Ghana and indeed the public sector engage in training and development of staff and have departments, units and sectors in charge of training and development. GPHA is one such organization that has been practicing training and development since its beginning and particularly for the past ten (10) years.
However, for some years now it appears staff development in Nigeria public sectors is haphazard, unplanned and unsystematic, and several of its employees such as machine operators, junior and middle level engineers, accounts clerks, computer operators, secretaries, drivers and many other category of workers, have not qualified for any form of training nor is there any systematic process of staff development in place. A brief interaction with some employees did show that Management see the cost incurred in the acquisition and maintenance of plant and equipment as more relevant than that expense on training and development of its staff.
In the absence of training and development of employees by Management of the organization, the employees sponsored themselves in furtherance of their education to obtain professional or higher level certificates. Employees who expressed the desire to pursue university education were not given any form of assistance like study leave with pay. Their applications for study leave were turned down with those who were persistent being advised to resign. Those who sought for part-time programs were disengaged after their studies as management claimed their programs were not relevant to the job. The few ones who were retained had no promotion to match their added skills and competencies. This it is believed to have led to high labor turnover in the organization. The study was therefore to assess the role of training on the human resource and how this affects worker performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to assess The impact of staff development on employee job performance. To be able to achieve this, the following specific objective has been identified
1.4 Specific Objectives
The objectives of this study are to:-
- Identify the major purposes of staff development, as well as the key internal and external influences on staff developement.
- Find out the training and development policies in operation in Nigeria.
- Outline and explain the training and development policies and processes including the assessment of training needs.
- Find out whether training and development schemes have positive effects on the performance of workers and productivity
1.5 Research Questions:
- What are the major purposes of training and development practices and processes including the assessment of training needs?
- How did the training and development practice develop in Nigerian Public sector?
- What are the training and development policies and practices in Nigeria?
- Does training and development have positive effect on worker performance and productivity in an organization?
1.6 Significance of the study
It is expected that the study will inform the Management of that to increase productivity, there is the need to have and retain well trained and motivated employees. It is also to help develop and maintain a quality work life, which will provide an opportunity for employees’ job satisfaction and self-actualization. Finally, it is to aid management to introduce modern schemes for training and development, to be able to meet the challenges of change in the future.
Problems such as the swearing of an oath of secrecy and indifference on the part of interviewees and respondents were limitations to the study as some of the employees felt uncomfortable and others were simply not bothered. The absence or inaccessibility of reliable records and reports on organizational activities within the past ten years also limited the research investigation. The unwillingness of Management to divulge strategic information in the name of confidentiality is a limitation to the study.
1.8 Organization of the study
The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one introduces the study by giving the background information on the research problem, main and specific objectives. the chapter further outlines the research questions, significance, scope, limitations as well as the organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the review of relevant literature on the research problems and concepts with specific reference to how it applies to Bayelsa civil services. Chapter three discusses the research methodology adopted for the study and relevant justifications. It outlines the methodology for carrying out the secondary and primary data collections and how results were analyzed. Chapter four presents the findings Chapter five gives the conclusions drawn from the research findings and recommendations to enhance organizational effectiveness through training, and to ensure a stable and committed human resource.