THE IMPLICATION OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Myriad of problems have bedeviled the Nigerian education system in the past. However, of most alarming negative impact is the upsurge of violence targeted at the education system presently. The Boko Haram debacle, which primarily culminated in unbridled attacks on educational installations, personnel and students in its determination to eradicate ‘western education’, has generated unprecedented public uproar both locally and internationally. Yet, the sect’s resolve to eradicate propagation of western education has continued unabatedly through mindless killing and kidnapping of students and personnel of the education system, as well as wanton destruction of educational facilities. This has created palpable fear and apprehension in the minds of educational practitioners and students, especially in northern Nigeria, making many of them to abandon their jobs and even the entire region. It is against this backdrop, that this study attempts to investigate the impact of bokoharam insurgency on educational development in Nigeria .The researcher therefore suggests that urgent proactive measures should be addressed against Boko Haram insurgency which has defied military solution. It was further suggested, among other things, that: mass re-orientation of the polity should be immediately embarked upon to promote western education especially in the northern region; educational practitioners should be adequately compensated as incentive for their retention in the education system; and adequate security measures should also be provided in Nigerian schools to forestall attacks and kidnapping of students and personnel as well as to deter
Background to the study
Terrorism is an illegitimate means of attempting to effect political charge by the indiscriminate use of violence (Lodge 1998:5)Also, Madunagu (2001:51) maintains that, terrorism is the use of violence to achieve political objectives. The bottom line of the above definitions is that, terrorism is an aspect of political violence. Since September 11 2001, multiple attacks on the twin towers of the world trade centre and pentagon in the United States of America, terrorism has become a household discussion in the world.
Boko-Haram according to Omenma D.A. (Dr) 2011 is traceable to the militia group called Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) which enjoyed the patronage of top politicians in other parts of the Northern Nigeria, began to patronize the group through budgetary allocations.
A seminar was presented in Caritas University by Omenma(2012), the boko haram insurgent started as a militia group called ECOMOG, which have being sponsored by prominent politicians in the North – Eastern States of Borno and Yobe during thw build up to the 2003 general election. Later, other politicians in other parts of Northern Nigeria began to sponsor the group, they provided them with huge sums of money, provision of training grounds on mountains scattered in the Northern region as well as protection against arrest by the federal government (Omenma 2012:15),
The sect spokesman Abdul’ Qaqa in one of his confessions in 2012 stated that Boko-Haram sect started as a fundamental group offcially called AtilusSunna Lid Dawatis Jihad but now popularly known as Boko–Haram. Since the inception of the activities of this group, Nigeria’s security has been threatened and it has also affected the quality of education in some parts of the country.
Since July 2009, the Islamist armed group, Jam’atuAhlisSunnahL’adda’awatihwal Jihad (People Committee) to the propagation of the prophets teachings and Jihad commonly referred to as Boko-Haram (meaning Western Education is Forbidden) and individuals or groups clamming to be members of Boko-Haram has claimed resonsibility for bombings and gun attacks across Northern and Central Nigeria. The group has killed Muslims, Clerics and worshippers, politicians journalists and lawyers and also police personnel and soldier. Boko-Haram has claimed responsibility for attacks on churches, prisons, police stations, school building, newspaper offices and the United Nation (UN) office.
The Human Right Wath (2012) estimated that out of 164 attacks launch by the sect, 935 people were recorded dead. Human rights also estimated that 550 people were killed in 155 boko-haram attack in 2011 alone.
Annesty International (2013) also estimated that in 2011 at least not less than 500 people were killed in attacks by and government officials were claimed. Also, thousands of people have been displace, turned to orphans and widows.
Nigerian who goes out in the moving can not guarantee his or her return, especially in the Northern part of the country. This is a panic situation of Nigerian society.
The economic activities especially in the Northern part of the country with particular reference to Borno, Bauchi, Yobe and Plateau state is nothing to write home about because some notable markets anre under lock and key due to bomb explosion here and there.
Politial wise, the activities of Boko-Haram has forced the government to impose the emergency rule on 15 prome areas. The affected local government are: GamboruNgala, BarkinLadi and Riyom in (Plateau State), DamaturuGeidam, Potisloum, Gujba and bade in (Yobe State). Nigeria tribune (2012) concluded.
However, the aim of researher is to ensure the peace and traquility in the nation, rather than bombing, killing and panicking everywhere most especially in the Boko-Haram prone states in the Northern part of the country. The lives and property of the citizen should be protected.
Every individual as a member or group of the nation should desist from the statement that is capable of breaking up of the country, for instance, the call from Boko-Haram that the people from Southern part of the country and christians should vacate the Northern therefore capable of breaking up of the country. Also, the threat statement by the Niger Delta that have prepared to launch attack on the North and Muslim living in the Niger Delata are if killinf of innocent people from south did not stop.
All these threat statements are capable of breaking up of the country. Therefore, the protection of live properly with peace and tranquility is the bedrock for the continue existence of the nation.
Since June 2013, several school children have been killed and injured in attacks on schools. In july 2013, purpoted leader of Boko-Haram AbubakaShekau, in a video statement, said Boko-Haram were attacking schools because they are Un-Islamic. He also called for more teachers to be killed. In it, he said ‘teachers who teach Western Education, ‘We will kill them’. We would burn down the schools, if they are Islamic schools. We don’t touch small children. Our religion does not allow that, but we will burn down the schoold’.
The spate of bombing now is targeted at primary schools, secondary schools and tertiary institutions respectively. Killing and maiming students, teachers, lecturers as well as burning school building at will which forved majority of scchools to close down in the North especially Borno, Yobe and Adamawa state respectively.
The trend of insecurity in the country especially with activities of the dreaded Islamic sect popularly known as Boko-Haram has become a major concern for every Nigerian. Significant stakeholders in the country have offered suggesstions on the need to check the new security challenges posed by the dreaded Islamic sect in the country.
While some suggested amnesty be offered to the group, other called for collaborations with World leaders and International organizations as strategies to rid the country of Boko-Haram terrorists. Some also suggested the need for strenghtening the internal security to comback the sect
It is against this background that this study is out to investigate into the insrugency of Boko-Haram and its effects on the quality of education in Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
In the past decades, education has gone a long way in the development of our country (Nigeria) but in some years back, schools in the Northern part of Nigeria faced attack by Boko-Haram which led to the destruction of school, system, school building, kidnapping of school children targeting and killing of school teacher which brings about bastardization of education sector and reduce the quality of education in Nigeria. The problem fews study wants to address therefore is to examine the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on educationing development.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to look at the following
- To examine whether Poor Funding of Education due to Boko Haram insurgency affect the Educational development in Nigeria
- To analyze whether Loss of Trained Personnel Due to The activities of Boko Haram Insurgency Affect the Educational Development in Nigeria
- To investigate whether Boko Haram activities affect the academic Performance of students in the North East
- To Analyze whether Destruction of School Facilities by Boko Haram affect educational development?
- Does Poor Funding of Education due to Boko Haram insurgency affect the Educational development in Nigeria?
- Does Loss of Trained Personnel Due to The activities of Boko Haram Insurgency Affect the Educational Development in Nigeria?
- Does Boko Haram activities affect the academic Performance of students in the North East?
- Does Destruction of School Facilities by Boko Haram affect educational development?
Significance of the Study
Education occupies an important place in most play for economic and social development whichever way we look at it the educational sector is important in human development or a supplier of the tarred manpower. It is a pre-requisite for the accomplishment of over development goal. It is the main sector through when national identity goals and aspirations are evaluated and realized (Adebiyi 2010).
Despite the high contribution from the government on education, Nigeria Education system has been faced with the problem of killing of the innocent students, bomb blast, and sexual harrassment by the notorious group (Boko Haram). The research of this topic has been carried out over years have not really achieve it prior objective. The effect of Boko Haram insurgency on the development and education in Nigeria. It is therefore hoped that this study will be relevant and of benefits to the government and its agency, students, scholars of political science, history, intelligent and security studies and the society at large in formulation of policy.
Definition of Term
BOKO HARAM: The term BokoHaramis a derivation of Hausa word Bokon meaning amnesty Western or otherwise non – Islamic education while Haram is a word with Arabic origin that favouratively means sin but literally, forbidden. In order words, Boko Haram is very controversial Nigeria militant Islamic group that seek for the imposition of Sharia law in the entire Northern state of Nigeria.
INSURGENCY: This is define as a political battle waged among a co-operation or acquiescence populace in order for a group of outside to take over (or at last undermine) the government of a nation.
EDUCATION: It is a sum total of all the processes by which a child or young adult develops the abilities and other forms of the society in which he/she lives.
DEVELOPMENT: It is an act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining