THE PROBLEM OF TEACHING AND LEARNING HISTORY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
Background to the Study
The importance of history to an individual and the entire society cannot be over emphasized. This is because history is a conveyor of a society‟s morals and values. And without a sound understanding of the past, we would find it difficult to fathom how the present challenges evolved and how we might be able to devise solution to them. Chukwu (2019).
In the realm of intellectual discipline, the study of history can train pupils or students to be accurate in comprehension and expression, to weigh evidence, to separate the trivial from the significant, to distinguish between propaganda and truth. History can provide twentieth-century men with standards of reference against which they can measure the values and achievements of their own age; it can encourage an enlightened awareness of the problems of modern communities, political, social and economic. Anyanwu(2010)
Not least important, it can train men to handle controversial questions in a spirit which searches for truth, insists on free discussion, and permits compromise. This is a rich harvest for any school subject to yield. As such, if history is properly placed in schools and the society at large, the upcoming youth will be able to internalize the values of integrity, tolerance and hard work which are celebrated in the history of our peoples but which are totally lacking in our public service today.
However, despite the importance of history to everyone and the various efforts of curriculum planners, HSN and the teachers, there have being a persistent decline in the study of history. This decline has become so outrageous that in the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) annual report of 2006, 1,154,266 candidates sat for the examination but only 63,276 of them did history. This represents an insignificant 5.5 percent as against 81 percent in 1960 (WASSCE annual report, 2006). This is a dangerous trend to individuals and society at large considering the importance of history to humankind.
Statement of the Problem
The teaching of history in schools cannot be said to be without problems and challenges. Some studies (eg. Adeyinka, 1989; Cobbold & Oppong, 2010a; Ruto, 2013) highlight several factors that affect the teaching and learning of history. For instance, a study conducted by Adeyinka (1989) on the problems of history teaching in some Nigerian secondary schools revealed that lack of essential teaching aids was the most serious problem of history teaching as the majority 41 (56.9%) of respondents regarded it as a very serious problem, 22 (30.6%) as serious, and 5 (6.9%) as an average problem. Other problems revealed by the study were the absence of well-equipped libraries or history rooms, large classes, inadequate motivation of teachers, and students’ low standard of written English. Assessing the teaching and learning of history in the Central Region of Ghana, Cobbold & Oppong (2010a) found that recommended methods were not used by history teachers in teaching the subject, and even those used were not used appropriately. It was also revealed that instructional resources were not frequently used in history lessons because such resources were either not available at all or were inadequate. Also, the number of periods allocated for history on the school timetable was found to be inadequate for the entire syllabus to be covered. Students were also found to possess negative perceptions about the subject as they regarded history as a compendium of facts to be memorised.
In view of the above this study tends to investigate the problem of Teaching and Learning History in secondary school. (case study in Bade L.G. Area).
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to find out the The problem of Teaching and Learning History in secondary school. (case study in Bade L.G. Area).
Specifically, the study is designed to:-
- To examine teachers’ perceptions of the problems faced in the teaching of history in secondary schools in Bade Local government Area
- To ascertain the most widely utilized instructional materials by classroom teachers in the teaching of History in Secondary schools in Bade Local government Area
- To examine the remedies to the problems of teaching of History in Bade Local government Area
- What are teachers’ perceptions of the problems faced in the teaching of history in secondary schools in Bade Local government Area?
- What are the most widely utilized instructional materials by classroom teachers in the teaching of History in Secondary schools in Bade Local government Area?
- What are To examine the remedies to the problems of teaching of History in Bade Local government Area?
- HoThere is no significance relationship between history teachers’ perceptions of the problems faced in the teaching of history in public and private schools in Bade
- HiThere is a significance relationship between history teachers’ perceptions of the problems faced in the teaching of history in public and private schools in Bade
Significance of the Study
The result of this research project will reveal to the teachers, students, and the government about the problems of using instructional materials. It will as well be of great significance owing to its quality and contribution.
The result of this research will also guide History teachers to effectively and efficiently use instructional materials and to know the causes of the problems of using these materials.
When these problems are tackled, it will help to stimulate the students’ mind and make them spirited, hence showing positive interest towards teaching and learning, if the materials are efficiently used.
Similarly, the result shall contribute as a source of material to researchers, educational administrators, and stakeholders and curriculum planners to update their knowledge of the causes and problems of using instructional materials.
The result of the study will also enlighten the teachers about the different problems encountered during the use of instructional materials in the process of teaching and learning of history.
The result of the study will also serve as a guide to other researchers who would wish to carry out research on a related aspect of the topic.
Scope of the Study
The problem of Teaching and Learning History in secondary school. (case study in Bade L.G. Area).The schools of study had to be selected for a proper and a good research work.
Limitations of the Study
Financial Constraints: The researcher was with limited funds, she cannot visit all the areas to get responses from respondents but she was able to get good information concerning the research topic.
Time Constraints: The researcher was involved in other departmental activities like seminars, attendance of lectures et.c which limited her time for the research but the researcher was able to meet up with the time assigned for the completion of the research work.