THE ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO) IN THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN NIGERIA
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It has always been presupposed that United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) have a lot of activities going on not only in Nigeria, but the countries of the world in general. Their role can only be understood by examining
their activities in the educational scientific and cultural disposition particularly as it affects human rights. UNESCO is an Agency of United Nations (U.N) created by the provisions of Articles 53 and 63 of the United Nations Charter. It is created not only as an instrument for reconstruction but also as instrument for building peace through understanding, exchange of useful knowledge to economically less developed countries and for national cultural relations program. Countless efforts at international cooperation in the fields of education, science and culture were made in London in 1945. Thus, the general theme that runs through the activities of UNESCO in Nigeria and other countries is the diffusion of culture and education of humanity for justice, liberty and peace as indispensable to the dignity of man constitute a sacred duty to maintain and protect these principles by all nations based on the spirit of mutual assistance and concern. Basically, UNESCO was founded due to the experiences of the Second World War of 1939-1945. Hence it was established to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations of the world through education, science culture in order to further universal respect for justice, rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedom to all people and nations of the world without difference on account of race, sex language or religion. Nigeria and many developing nations are members of UNESCO. UNESCO has been carrying out series of programmes in Nigeria involving direct and indirect actions
designed to deal with the complex problems in the development of education, science culture and information respectively. In 1947 and 1949, UNESCO expanded its role of information service to publication of books such as “A book of NEEDS’. This book outlined the basic needs and situation in member countries. It also produced pamphlets on children as victims of war. There are several newsletters on war devastated laboratories, art galleries, museums and libraries. Nigeria actually benefited from the activities of UNESCO in a number of ways. This study will consider some of these both in Nigeria and in other parts of the world.