THEMATIC AND STYLISTICS OF WOLE SOYINKA’S POEMS: FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE CASES

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ANALYSIS OF WOLE SOYINKA’S POEMS: FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE CASES

ABSTRACT 

Literature is a social institution, using mediam language a social creation such tradition literary derives symbolism and meter are social in their very nature. The purpose of the study is to describe figurative language and to know the messages are applied in three poems by Wole Soyinka in stylistic approach to express the function and purposes use as author’s expression to state his idea.

The researcher used descriptive qualitative research design. The data analysis based on the data in poems, and this cannot be obtained in statistical procedure. The approach that is used by the researcher is stylistic approach. The researcher takes all the sources of data from the poem as primary source and other literary work as guidance as the second sources. The data collecting techniques that are used by the researcher is reading the poems to understand, selecting the data, dealing with the problems, and deciding the data related to the objectives of the study. The result of this study show that the three poem’s (Abiku, Night, Telephone Conversation) figurative language has uniqueness and authenticity as well as proof of Wole Soyinka’s competence in using potency of language. The authenticity of the three poems language can be seen from figurative language which is beautiful, full expressive and aesthetic power. Through stylistic approach, it is inferred that the figurative language in Abiku, Night and Telephone Conversation has strong expression and it is not far from his socio historical background.

AUTHOR;ANITA TRISNA SURYANI

INTRODUCTION

Language is the major device of communication through verbal or non verbal. People are able to express their thought and to communicate with each other or even with their self. With language they can express feeling, willing, and opinion. And it’s considered as literature.

According Wellek and Warren ‘ Literature is a social instuition, using as it medium language, a social creation. Such traditional literary devices as symbolism and mater are social in their very nature (1956:89). It means that literature is imitation of the real life.Where it presents and reflects the real life of human life. So it makes literature is interesting to study.

The result of literature is called literary work. Aminuddin (2002:61) states that literary work is valuable thing that is able to give some values more than just for spending spare time or entertaining. By understanding their content of the literary work we will know some events that happen in our life, Some events likes a reality of social life, religion or experience in someone’s life in society which is expressed in writing resist story.

There are some written literature that can be read such a poem, prose, novella, short story and novel. But this study choose poetry to be analyze. William Wordsworth (1988:78) defined poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings, recollected in tranquility.” Poetry is the most condensed and concentrated form of literature, saying most in fewest number of words. The writer is always extended their idea and will be continued to expand their imagination because they does not satisfy what they have got.

Many kinds of subject can be analize from a poem, but in this study the researcher enrich Stylistic to analyze the poems. In a literary work should be considered fundamental and characteristic features of language and style. According to Abrams[1]Abrams, M,H.1971. Glossary of literature term. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winson, Inc. style is a way for the disclosure language in prose or how the author reveals. something presented. Style is a matter on general no longer contains the controversial nature suggesting the understanding how to use the language in a particular context by a particular author and for a specific purpose (Leech and Short, 1981: 10).

Learning about this style is referred to as stylistic. Basically, stylistic is an interdisciplinary study between linguistics and literature that observes the language that is used in literary forms (Kenyjono, 1984:14). In his book, Stylistics And The Teaching of Literature, Widdowson (1975:3) stated that: Stylistics is the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation. Linguistic does have something to contribute to literary criticism, just as literary criticism has something to contribute to linguistics. That is why stylistics involves both literary criticism and linguistics. The literary critic must be involved in a discussion about language.

According to Wellek and Warren [2]Wellek, Rene and Austin, Warren. 1955. Teori Kesusastraan. Jakarta : PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama., state that Stylistic is a part of literature, and will be an important part because the only method that can describe style special feature of the literature. Stylistics can be provide a way of mediating between two subjects: English language and literature. In other words, stylistics occupies the middle ground between linguistic and literary criticism and its function is to mediate between the two. In analyzing stylistic usually meant to describe something that is generally in the world of literature to explain the relationship between language with the fuction of artistic and meaning.[3]Kennedy, X.J, and Gioia, Dana. 1995. Literature : An Introduction to Fiction,

In this research, the researcher will analyze a poem in stylistic[4]Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 2010. Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Yogyakarta : Gadjah Mada Uneiversity Press. approach using figurative language to get the meaning of poem from its expression of each words. Figurative language is used to describe expressions that conform to a pasrticular pattern or form, and these patterns, each of which has a special name, has become the tools or rhetoric and poetry. Figurative language which employs various figure of speech, such as simile, metaphor. Antithesis, hyperbole, and paradox.

In this study the researcher analyzes poems by Wole Soyinka. Wole Soyinka is a poet from Nigeria. Particularly in terms of drama and poetry. He was the first person in Africa was honored as laureates in literature. Wole Soyinka including Contemporary poet. He began his career with a role in drama in 1957. At that time his works were only published poems such as “The Immigrant” and “My Next Door Neighbor”, which was published in the magazine Black Orpheus Nigeria He produced his new satire Trials of Brother Jero. The researcher analyzes three poems in Wole Soyinka poems. They are Abiku, Night and Telephone Conversation. In Abiku tells about a child who died at a very young age and was born again by the same old people when they have overcome grief last event. Night tells about the changes that the Earth goes through when it changes from night to day. And Telephone Conversation tells about depicts a conversation between a white lady and an African American man which casts a harsh light on the racism and prejudice which grips society.

Furthermore, the researcher wants to know much about Wole Soyinka poems in Stylistic approach. Because of that, the researcher intends to conduct a study entitled An Analysis of Wole Soyinka’s Poems: Figurative Language Cases. Based on the background above, the researcher formulates the statement of the problem as follows what figurative languages are applied in three poems by Wole Soyinka and what are the messages in three poems by Wole Soyinka.

In the accordance to his analysis, there are main points that we can accommodate them. They are the students, the teacher and the writer. For the students this study can help to know and understand about literary work, increase their knowledge and ability especially about the poem. For the teacher, the study becomes a lesson material and useful the researcher takes information for the teacher. Besides that, as an extracurricular lesson in the school that wants performance on the stage. And for the writer , this study would be useful reference for those who are interest in analyzing literature. It can help the researcher in analyzing poem using stylistic approach. This study has scope and limitation. The scope is taken in the literature. So this study the researcher chooses three poems by Wole Soyinka poem to be analyzed. They are Abiku, Night and Telephone Conversation. And the researcher limits this study only focus on literature analysis, they are figurative language and messages using stylistic approach.

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 Research design is to describe analysis method, to make clear limitation and source also to understand process of research. In this research, the researcher uses qualitative research because the data in the form of word or sentence that is departed according to the category for reach the connection. The writing method of this study is descriptive. It means that the analysis of this study is based on confirmation of the theories and the data taken from the poems it self. This research is both qualitative and descriptive of the research phenomena in the form of words, clause, phrase, and sentence.

The researcher uses stylistic approach that tend to the elaboration of the figurative language, since the impact of some figurative language is greater in literary text because they form part of ‘a package’ and make a greater contribution to the meaning than an ordinary conversation. This approach can express the fuction and the purpose of use the author’s expression to state his idea with figurative language.

Source of the data, the researcher collects the data by quotation about the main topics of her literary work from a library research to support this data. The researcher also took some words, phrases and sentence related to the stylistic on the Wole Soyinka. The researcher also uses internet as source of data. The documentation as the instrument of research. In documentation researcher collecting all the data from the poem that the researcher analyze.

In procedures of Collecting Data, researcher do many steps, they are reading the poem more and more until the researcher understands well the contents of the poems, choosing the data dealing with the question problem of the study, classifying the data dealing with the question problems of the study and the researcher starts doing analysis about figurative language and the messages in stylistic approach in Wole Soyinka poems.

The procedures of analyzing data begin by organizing and prepare the data for analysis, read through all the data, begin detailed analysis with a coding process likes Metaphor ( MTR ), Simile ( SML ), Hyperbole ( HBL), Personification ( PSC ), Paradox ( PDX), Litotes ( LTS ), Anaphora ( ANP ), Synecdoche ( SND ). Then identifying the figurative language analysis from each poem, identifying the messages from each poem.

 

RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION

 

Every author always has characteristic strong in literary works especially poetry. In analyzing a poem important part contained in stylistic approach contained in the literature. Where Stylistic intuition can tell inside message from the poem. In this chapter the author will analyze poem with stylistic approach. To obtain good results the researcher focus on the statement of the problem. They are: the kinds of figurative language are applied in four poems by Wole Soyinka, the imagery are applied in four poems by Wole Soyinka and how the messages implementation in four poems are by Wole Soyinka.

 

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

The Figurative Language applied in Abiku poem by Wole Soyinka: 

  • Metaphor

“Yams do not sprout amulets” (in Stanza 2 line 8)

In the sentence above researcher included Figurative language of Metaphor. Because the sentence is the deepest comparison between two things that directly Yams and amulet. Where amulet equated with life. “Once and the repeated time” (in stanza 5 line 17)

In this sentence included Figurative Language of Metaphors. Because the pad word ‘once’ means birth and ‘repeated time’ dead husk. Is a comparison of two things directly? The purpose of the sentence is that a mother who gave birth to a baby and the baby always dies because it carries the plague for his mother.

“Suppliant snake coiled on the doorstep (stanza 7 line 27)

The word above includes Figurative Language of Metaphors. That there is a direct comparison. Can be seen in the word I and snake. Where I is compared with snakes.

Synecdoche

“Libations, each finger in Poins me” (In stanza 5 line 19)

The sentence above the researcher includes figurative language of Synecdoche. That the word ‘finger Points’ is used to represent part to whole. That ‘finger’ to represent a person in the poem.

Hyperbole

“ The ground is wet with mourning” (in stanza 6 line 21)

The sentence includes figurative language of Hyperbole. That word says it shows excessive words. There is the word ‘wet with mourning’ which means that the tears fall down the eyes of mourning may not wet to the ground.

Personification

“White dew suckles fleas’ birds” (in stanza 6 line 22)

In this sentence includes Figurative Language of personification. That sentence is invested abstraction of life and death. Objects with human qualities which aims to evoke emotion in people. Can be seen in the word “fleas bird” is a witch and “white dew” is human flesh, which means witch who likes human flesh.

Evening be friends the spider, trapping”Flies in wine-Froth (in stanza 6 line 23, 24)

The sentence includes Figurative Language of personification. No comparison objects as if alive. There is the word ‘fly’ which means witch. Profit – profit which means man. The purpose of the above sentence that  was superior to the spiritual man

“In silence of webs, Abiku moans” (stanza 8 line 32)

In the last line of the researcher includes figurative language of personification. In the sentence ‘In silence of webs, abiku means, shaping moans from the yolk’. That abiku here felt herself alive when she was dead until she moans symbolize forming mounds of egg yolk, that it is a grave mound.

Paradox

“The ripest fruit was saddest (stanza 8 line 30)

In the sentence above the researcher includes figurative language of paradox. In a sentence using the comparator fruit. In the word “the ripest fruit ‘means that nature, where nature is ready to be picked. This shows again the deeper statement.

The Figurative Language applied in Night poem by Wole Soyinka: 

  • Metaphor

“Your hand is heavy. Night, upon my brow,” (in stanza 1 line 1)

In the above poem includes Figurative Language of Metaphor. Because the sentence includes the word – a word that is less polite to the hearing. And there is a direct comparison between the Hand that is heavy and eyebrow.

“Serrated leaves dank shadows through” (stanza 4 line 10)

The sentence above included figurative language of Metaphor. There comparing objects directly. There appears to be a word that compared the shadow he equated with the damp leaves.

·  Hyperbole

“ I saw your jealous eye quench the sea’s” (in stanza 2 line 4)

The sentence included figurative language of Hyperbola. Because the sentence is excessively expressed word, ie the word ‘you’re jealous eye quenches the sea’. This suggests that the woman was jealous benr too deep. “Fluorescence, dance on the pulse incessant” (in stanza 2 line 6)

In the sentence above included figurative language of Hyperbole. It is in the earlier discussion that the word on the pulse incessant dance show excessive words.

“Of the waves. And I Stood, drained” (stanza 3 line 7)

In the above sentence includes figurative language of Hyperbole. That was the word ‘waves, I Stood’ indicates excessive words which meaning of the word is that the woman’s mind when it was nuts that he imagined he was standing on the waves. Though it is not possible.

·  Simile

I bear no heart mercuric like the clouds, to dare” (in stanza 1 line 2)

In the sentence the researcher includes figurative language of Simile. There is a comparison made between the two words and use the word ‘like’. Here expressing disrespect for comparing him to the clouds.

 “Woman as a clam, on the sea’s cresent” (in stanza 2 line 4)

The sentence above included figurative language of Simile. The researcher can know that the sentence is less than polite to be heard and have the word ‘as’ that symbolizes it is a simile. Comparison of the phrase is in a quiet woman as he was at sea.

“ Submitting like the sand, blood and brine” (stanza 3 line 8)

In contrast to the sentence above the researcher includes figurative language of Simile. That was the word ‘like’ as a figure of speech is the main feature. The sentence is to distinguish two things: the blood’s salt water so that words are less respectful thing to talk about.

“Sensations pained me, faceless, silent as night thieves. (Stanza 4 line 12)

In the above sentence included figurative language of Simile. Because there is the word ‘as’ as especially characteristic. And in this sentence he compares his sensation as night thieves.

 

The Figurative Language applied in Telephone Conversation poem by Wole Soyinka:

  • Hyperbole

“Lipstick coated, long gold-rolled” (in stanza 1 line 8)

In the sentence above included figurative language of Hyperbole. That the sentence is excessive means words, the lipstick is a circular gold plated. “The rest of me. Palm of my hand, soles of my feet” (in stanza 4 line 29)

In the sentence above the researcher includes figurative language of Hyperbole. Where the sentence that includes the word exaggerated, exaggerated that it is as though he shows her that the palm of his hand and soles on his feet not black.

·  Irony

“HOW DARK? ‘… I had not misheard…

“ARE YOU LIGHT OR VERY DARK?” (Stanza 2 line 10 and line 11)

In the sentence above the researcher included figurative language of Irony. Because the word ‘dark’ in the sentence is a rough syndical, namely white women speak or insinuating that black men.

 “of rancid breath of public hide-and-speak” (stanza 2 line 12)

In the above sentence included figurative language of Irony. Because in that sentence was the word ‘of rancid breath’ that expresses sarcastic. He again said that word to a woman because a woman says that she is black. The word says it is not polite to say.

“THAT’S DARK, IS NOT IT?” “Not altogether. (In stanza 4 line 28)

The sentence above included figurative language of Irony. Because there is the word ‘dark’ which reveals innuendo that does not match the expected state. Simultaneously she was clarifying the word.

·  Anaphora

“Button B. Button A. Stench” (stanza 2 line 11)

In a sentence that included figurative language of Anaphora. Because there is a repetition of the same word at the beginning of the sentence is the word “Button B ‘.’Button A’

“Red booth. Red pillar-box. Red double-tiered” (stanza 2 line 13)

In the sentence above the researcher includes figurative language of Anaphora. It can be seen that there is a repetition of the sentence is the word ‘red’ at the beginning of the sentence that was repeated twice.

·  Metaphor

“ARE YOU DARK OR VERY LIGHT?” Revelation came. (Stanza 3 line 18)

In the sentence above the researcher included figurative language of Metaphor. Because the sentence is revealing comparison directly, which can be seen in the words dark and light?

·  Simile

“You mean-like plain or milk chocolate?” (In stanza 3 like 19)

The sentence above included figurative language of Simile. There is the word ‘like’ as a figure of speech is specially characteristic. As well as the sentence is comparing two things. Skin is a man with a plain or milk chocolate. Hal revealed the impolite.

·  Litotes

about my ears-“Madam,”

See for yourself? “‘I pleaded,” would you rather “(stanza 4 line 34-35)

In the above sentence included figurative language of litotes. Due to the above sentence a man – man humbled himself revealing ‘I pleaded, “Would you rather” and See for yourself? “Because he was annoyed and embarrassed because she was ridiculed, but he humbled himself by talking like that.

 

2.         MESSAGES

 

 

The first poem the researcher get message from Abiku poem. The researcher can take is to do with religion. Confidence should be the primary basis in life. Humans should not be believed about it like that because it can cause anxiety without apparent reason. Then, we must increase our sense of faith in God, so that things like that are not an impact on the lives and confidence.Besides that, health messages appear on this poem. Seen as a newborn child later died. Nigeria Society never think about the health of both mother and child. Should it need to be traced to medical actions: why it happened, so there is no disease that can kill babies repeatedly as anemia, cell circle, etc. It should be done in women who are pregnant. So it can be said that it is not an empirical science.

The second the researcher get messages from Night poem. In the  poem contains a message that free night every two people in a relationship that has its own sense of selfishness that can drain the liver. That should not appear in the relationship. The lack of mutual understanding in a relationship will cause misunderstanding. The key person in a relationship is to have an open feelling, faith, and honesty.

And the last the researcher get message from Telephone Conversation. We should not distinguish between religion, ethnicity, race, gender etc in the mix. But it stands in stark contrast to the poem which white women have always mocked about race black men without looking back at her. Respect and courteous behavior should possess one’s soul. We must discern with whom we speak, what we are talking about and how good language to talk about. Because someone’s voice can characterize even though it was a private person by phone. We need more frequent self introspection. And goodness one can not be seen from their social class. In this poem even though the phone conversations one could think that he was of high social class. But the mocking attitude was not good to do because it makes other people angry and hurt.

 

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

 

The researcher would like to present the conclusion from the discussion in previous about An Analysis of Wole Soyinka poem’s “Figurative Language Cases”. The researcher also would like to gives suggestion for education and for next researcher. After the researcher read and understand the three poems, they  are Abiku, Night, and Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinka. The researcher hopes, it is useful for the reader here the researcher shows the conclusion of the poem. There are two conclusion, they are the Figurative Language applied in the first poem. That is ‘Abiku’ are Metaphor, Synecdoche, Hyperbola, Personification and Paradox. In the second poem, that is ‘Night’ are Metaphor, Hyperbole and Simile. And the third poem, that is ‘Telephone Conversation’ are Hyperbole, Irony, Anaphora, Metaphor, Simile and Litotes. And the second about the message in the three poem. The first poem, that is ‘ Abiku’ are Confidence in religion should be the primary basic in life. Because everything what someone is doing it will fit with the belief that he believed. Humans should not be believed about it because it can cause anxiety without apparent reason. Therefore, we must increase our sense of faith in God, so that things like that are not an impact on the lives and confidence. Besides health messages appear on this poem. Should it need to be traced to medical actions. In the second poem, that is ‘Night’ are the lack of mutual understanding in a relationship will cause misunderstanding. And the key person in a relationship is to have an open feeling, faith, and honesty. And the third poem, that is ‘Telephone Conversation’ are racial differences is a key factor discussed in a conversation between two people that black men and white women. We should not distinguish between religion, ethnicity, race, gender etc in the mix, respect and courteous behavior should possess one’s soul and we need more frequent self introspection.

After understanding An analysis of Wole Soyinka poems “Figurative Language Caeses”. The researcher suggests to the reader and the other researcher to enrich and improve their knowledge about Stylistic theories, stylistic approach especially about figurative, imagery and messages which are included in literary work. It also can be found from other sources of literature. By reading a poem it can widen our vocabulary which is one of the parts in the English component. Beside all of that, the researcher do hope that the students of English department who take the subject of literary will get additional acknowledge and experience about this problem. It is suggestion that people must thinking deeply or think as wise as possible before doing something which deal to their life.

 

References

References
1 Abrams, M,H.1971. Glossary of literature term. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winson, Inc.
2 Wellek, Rene and Austin, Warren. 1955. Teori Kesusastraan. Jakarta : PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
3 Kennedy, X.J, and Gioia, Dana. 1995. Literature : An Introduction to Fiction,
4 Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 2010. Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Yogyakarta : Gadjah Mada Uneiversity Press.
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