Theoretical framework girl Child Education.
Among sociologists, there is a disagreement on the reasons for inequality within the educational systems. Wexler (1979) argues that the reason for inequality in education is that women are deprived of access and society reinforces cultural norms and stereotypes within educational systems. This idea is supported by Maxist theorists who believed that education is an essential part of the process of producing inequalities others claim that education plays a large part in remedying social inequality. Both theories however, have a common criticism that simply looks at the results of education as an input or output model. Recent Maxist reviews of education have concentrated more closely on the contradictions, implicit in the experience of schooling. The process by which inequality was created, renewed and the cultural resistance of the students to dominant the ideology. (Bowles and Gintis 1976, Willis 1977, Apple 1982 and Thomas 1990).
The theories of gender have also mirrored the factors that affect women’s education and that inequality is caused by the differential socialization of girls and boys in sense that girls are culturally deprived and these practices affect women education. Mahony 1980, spender 1982 and Mahony 1980 stated that schools both reflect and produce patriarchal relations and that the state power to affect school and family practices yet these traditional norms practices are not question by the Islamic state because Islam as an ideology does not separate the state from religion. Therefore the state has authority over family to reinforce the laws.
Spender and Mahony reflect the situation in Nigeria for example the proportion of women who passed the examination and enter the higher education was very small in 1978 to 1979 academic year. The statistics for the academic year 1986 to 1988 showed a drop in enrollment in Nigeria universities and colleges. Only 13% of students were females and 62% were male. This drop was due to changes in government policies towards admissions in certain schools such as the college of agriculture and the school of law.
According to Harvard educational review m the study of history of women education by Christine .A. Woyshner, Bonnie Hao Kuo tai in the 19th century saw a major advances in educational opportunities from women and girls, from the common school movement in the early part of the century to multiply opportunities in higher education at the century close. In 1800’s women began to play central roles in education as teachers and learners in formal and infonnal education setting on the frontier and in the cities. What did these advances mean for education for women and girls in the 20th century? This symposium looked at developments in education of women and girls over the course of the 20th century being conducted by and about women who historically have been excluded from main stream academic discourse. The main aim of presenting this symposium is to show case some of the provocative work being done in the area of history of women in education. We selected work that believe that will push the existing paradigm of historical research, including several articles that reflect the multiplicity of this courses being used in historical inquiry into women education.
Each article in this collection contributes to understanding women’s role in education through traditional and alternative historical analysis. Often the stories of women are marginalized in research and practice in general and in historical research in particular, make use of other disciplinary tools such as economic, political and anthropological methods of inquiry, to address challenges of paucity of written records and a history of eroticization of non western cultures. We hope this symposium will play a role in furthering such scholarships and will encourage others to pursue research that takes existing scholarships into new territory.
According to Kathleen Weiler in his study reflections on writing a history of women teachers, he presented and over view of current issues in feminist, historiography contemplating the importance of an awareness of the nature of knowledge, subjectivity in historical evidence and role that language plays in the social construction of gender through reanalysis of data from her book country school women. Weiler offers asuccient synthesis of key issues in feminist historiography and thoughtful examination of historical documents.
According to Asgedet Stefanos on his study on women and education in Eritrea a historical and contemporary analysis offers a view of the diverse ways in women attained formal and informal education before, during and after the recent revolution that resulted in the independent Eritrea. Through voices of Eritrea women interviewed by stetanos in the course of her research she described Eritrea’s transition from a pre-modem to an industrialized economy as well as the accompanying changes in women’s roles in that society Stefano’s relates how sexiest practices of colonialists and missionaries sometimes inadvertently provided educational opportunities for women, while the maxist revolutionary agenda that embraced women issues in the effort of gain support for an independent nation created roles for women in the public sphere. This tended to create new problems for women who followed the revolution, attempted to assert their indepence and autonomy in post-revolutionary context in which efforts to improve women’s status weakened.
According to Linda Eisenmann synthesizes the research on women in the history of higher education in reconsidering a classic assessingof the history of women’s higher education a dozen years after Barbara Solomon. Eisenmann looks into how Solomon’s comprehensive history, in the company of educated women both explained and constrained historical research on women in higher education she explains that Solomon’s text was unique in that she was the first scholar to attempt to be inclusive of women and women of lower socio- economic classes. Using Solomon’s text as a spring board, Eisenmann considers the latest research done in the field of the history of higher education as well as a new directions this research could take such as expanding the range of institutions and populations studied.
According to Perkins in her article the “African American Female Elite”. The early history of African American women in the seven sister colleges, 1880- 1960.represents just an expansion of the field Perkins reveals the painful experience of young blacks women who preserved despite their ostracism and marginalization within these elites institutions. She exposes the way the seven sister colleges reflected society’s attitudes towards Black women by continuing racism and oppression on their compuses. Her study also demonstrates, however, that despite the racist climate on these campuses, the Africans American women who attended were highly successful. Most of the women Perkins interviewed valued the opportunity to attain a degree at such an institution and connections and status it brought.
According to Deirdre Almeida in the history of native American women’s education argues that natives American women have historically resisted educational policies that sought to assimilate to advocate for indigenous rights and power to tell their own stories. Almeida describes the ative American culture’s on tradition of female leadership, and how their strength has helped generations of women service the off reservation boarding schools, outing system and public education to reaffirm Native American experience values and knowledge.
According to Marilyn Mavrinac in coeducation and gender equity in 12th century French school reforms analyzes the advances made in girl’s education in French during two reform movement in the 12th in addition; she touches on the status of women in teaching and school administrative positions during these two reforms. These two waves, one from 1920 to1930 and the other from1960 to 1980, both aimed to upset the nation’s focus on educating selected white male elite. Mavinac note the irony that gender equity was often a byproduct of school reform movement. She suggests that the patriarchal structure of the French republic is largely to blame for the slow and conflicted progress made by women in education.