Work life balance and employee commitment in Nigeria manufacturing Company
Background of the Study
Work-life balance is referred to as the ability of a worker to manage both paid work and social life adequately (Guest, 2002). To manage both domains efficiently depends on the strategies employed by both employees and employers. In this regard, Lockwood (2003) asserts that employers have increasingly realised that, to enhance work-life balance, they must consistently improve the quality of life of employees with their families to increase the quality of work. This suggests the need for vibrant businesses to promote work and family integration to enhance the commitment of workers.
Therefore, as companies aim at reducing cost and increasing profit in the global market, it is crucial for employers to implement policies to help workers balance paid work and non-work roles. Furthermore, Asiedu-Appiah, Dufie-Marfo and Frempong (2013) argue that paid work and non-work activities are two important domains in that longer hours at the workplace reduce the presence of employees at home and they often miss family and social activities. The authors observe that as employees get more involved in their jobs, they are less likely to have time for social activities and that eventually reduces commitment to work. On the other hand, when an employee spends more time with the family and less time at work, it can lead to absenteeism and labour turnover among workers (Adams, King & King, 1996). In spite of these outcomes, employees are not equally aware of the availability of work-life balance policies in their organizations (Budd & Mumford, 2005; Yeandle, Crompton, Wigfield, &Dennet, 2002). In determining the link between work-life balance and commitment, Beauregard and Henry (2009) argue that commitment to work depends largely on the extent to which employees are able to balance work activities and non-work activities and are satisfied with the job they do and the conditions of service within which they work. Thus, for an organisation to compete well in the global market in high quality standards, it will need to guarantee employees with flexible work arrangements in order for them to display a higher level of positive attitude to work.
Work-life balance is a satisfactory level of involvement between the multiple roles in a person‟s life. Although definitions and explanations vary, work-life balance is generally associated with equilibrium, or maintaining an overall sense of harmony in life (Clarke, 2004). The study of work-life balance involves the examination of people‟s ability to manage simultaneously the multifaceted demands of life. Although work-life balance has-traditionally been assumed to involve the devotion of equal amounts of time to paid work and non-work roles, more recently the concept has been recognized as more complex and has been developed to incorporate additional components (Greenhaus, 2003). Work life balance aims at providing quality of life for an employee at the same time retaining the productivity levels of an employee at the work place. The balance work life score provides an organization with a productive and innovative employee, whereas disparity in the work life balance tends to develop depressed and dissatisfied staff (Greenhaus, 2003). Hamming and Bauer (2009) investigated and discovered that when work-life imbalance and mental health issues developed in males as well as females, they tend to develop further issues such as negative emotions, depression, low energy, pessimism, fatigue and sleep disorders.
Several theories have been proposed by researchers to explain work life balance. Discrepancy theory hypothesizes that satisfaction depends on the extent to which outcomes which an individual thinks he/she derives from work correspond to the outcomes pursued in work. The compensation theory refers to an attempt of making up for shortcomings or deficits in one role through higher involvement in another role (Edwards & Rothbard, 2005). These deficiencies could be the demands or satisfactions that can be fulfilled in another role (Guest, 2002). For example, an individual is highly engaged in the work life because of some negative experiences in the non-work life.
Statement of the Problem
The concept of quality of work-life is an expression that has emerged in response to social change. Recent and more deeply rooted changes in the labor market, the nature of employment, demographic trends, family life and state policies combine to create a particular sense of tension and pressure between paid employment and the rest of life. Meyer and Allen stated that commitment includes affective, continuance and normative dimensions. Affective commitment: refers to staff‟s affective attachment to be identified with the organizations and engaging in the organization‟s activities with positive emotions. Continuance commitment: includes a value-based commitment to the organization and the employee is involved in the organization‟s activities and has high loyalty to the organization. Normative commitment: refers to individuals‟ feelings based on the need to stay in the organization. Staff‟s high organizational commitment leads to the desire to make great efforts in achieving organizational goals, having more job satisfaction, high tendency to stay in the organization, reduced turnover and absenteeism rate, increased staff‟s mental freshness, improved organization‟s performance, better manifestation of personal and organizational lofty goals (Zeineldin, 2013), and represents staff‟s views toward their organization and job (Ahadi and Suandi, 2014). In contrast, reduced organizational commitment leads to negative consequences for the individual and the organization, such as reduced productivity and individual performance, perceived discrimination in the organization, ignoring needs of the personnel, lack of participation in organizational issues, high absenteeism, delay in the arrival of employees, unwillingness to stay in the organization, turnover, reduced customers‟ trust, reduced revenue and lack of motivation (Chen, et. al., 2015).The study by Afsar (2014) on the impact of the quality of work-life on organizational commitment was based on academicians working for State and Foundation Universities in Turkey. The study revealed that the quality of work-life has a positive impact on affective and normative commitment of the academicians working for both state and foundation universities whereas it has a negative impact on the continuance commitment.
Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of Work life balance and employee commitment. A study of Nigeria brewery, Lagos branch,
The specific objectives of the study are to:
- Determine the effects of leave policy on employee turnover in the Nigeria brewery.
- Ascertain the relationship between flexible scheduling and effective service delivery in the Nigeria brewery
- Highlight the effect of emotional intelligence on organizational commitment in the Nigeria brewery
- Assess the relationship between workplace support system and willingness to work longer hours in the Nigeria brewery.
- Identify the key challenges to effective work-life balance programme in the Nigerian Nigeria brewery.
The following research questions guided the investigation:
- To what extent does leave policy affect employee turnover in the Nigeria brewery?
- What is the relationship existing between flexible scheduling and efficient service delivery in the Nigeria brewery?
- What is the effect of emotional intelligence on organizational commitment in the Nigeria brewery
- What is the relationship existing between workplace support system and job pleasure in the Nigeria brewery?
- What are the key challenges to effective work-life balance programme in the Nigeria brewery?
The research hypotheses were formulated as follows:
- Leave policies significantly affect employee turnover decisions.
- There is significant relationship between flexible scheduling and efficient service delivery in the manufacturing firm.
iii. Emotional intelligence significantly affects staff commitment in the manufacturing firm.
- Workplace support significantly influences staff willingness to work longer hours
- Organizational culture and poor communication processes are the key challenges to effective work-life balance programme in the Nigerian manufacturing firm.
Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and practical significance. It is significant theoretically because its findings serve to enrich literature in this area of research interest. It is empirically significant to scholars in the sense that it will generate original and indigenous data on the effect of WLB on managerial performance in the manufacturing industry in Nigeria.
Practically, the findings provide an objective outlook to the Manufacturing Association of Nigeria (MAN) on the relationship between WLB and organizational presentation in the Nigerian manufacturing industry.
The findings and recommendations of this study will help the firms and other manufacturing firms in Nigeria to map out strategies of dealing with WLB issues within their organizations. The study is equally beneficial to future researchers who will find it a relevant research material for their study.
It serves as a reference material for students on similar topics by providing them with empirical insight into the effect of work-life balance on organizational performance in the Nigerian manufacturing firm.
Scope of the Study
The study focused mostly on the aspects of WLB that is yet to receive much literature attention in the Zone such as leave policies and practices, work scheduling, emotional intelligence and workplace support. The area of the study is delimited to the Lagos where there is a dearth of studies on WLB in the manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study was restricted to Nigeria brewery.
Limitations of the Study
Attitude of the Respondents: There is the expected typical reluctant attitude on the part of some respondents to fill the questionnaire or grant interview. In some cases, some respondents expect to be paid for the use of their time and knowledge; if otherwise, they were very reluctant in giving the required information. Some hoard information in keeping with the oath of secrecy. In spite of repeated assurance of confidentiality most of them fear the loss of their job.
Operational Definition of Terms
This section presents the operational definition of key words used in the study as follows: Work-Life Balance: This concept is used in this study to mean proper prioritizing between “work” (career and ambition) and “lifestyle” (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation) in such a way that the employee maintains a healthy equilibrium between the two.
Flexible Scheduling: Flexible scheduling is affording employees the flexibility of choosing how long, where and when to work.
Workplace Support: This is the degree to which employees believe that their organization values their contributions and cares about their wellbeing and fulfils their socioemotional needs. Workplace support includes things like, providing catering services in-situ, children day care services, health cilinic within the office premises, etc.