Extent Of Information Communication Technology Integration In Teaching And Learning Process In Secondary Schools In Nigeria

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Extent Of Information Communication Technology Integration In Teaching And Learning Process In Secondary Schools In Nigeria

Extent Of Information Communication Technology Integration In Teaching And Learning Process In Secondary Schools In Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

 Education is one of the main corner-stones for economic development and improvement of human welfare. As global economic competition grows stiffer, education becomes an important source of competitive advantage as it is linked to economic growth and ways for countries to attract investment and hence jobs (Srivatsava 2002). Education further appears to be one of the major determinants of sustainable life-long earnings. Countries, therefore, frequently raise educational attainment as a way of tackling poverty and deprivation (UNESCO 2005). A well -educated and skilled workforce is one of the core pillars of the knowledge-based economies (UNESCO 2005). This realization makes the reforms in education and development to remain a central pre-occupation for many countries and for international development. In every country at any given level of economic development, there is a great demand for education reform in order to be able to face the prevailing political, social and cultural changes as well as scientific and technological transformations ( UNESCO Educational policy and Reforms 2008) Since 1990, many governments have been promoting the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education, particularly to expand access to and improve the quality of education. At the same time, globalization and shift to a knowledge-based economy requires that education institutions develop individual ability to apply knowledge in dynamic contexts. ICTs have been identified as a means to attain these objectives (School Net Africa 2003).

Although ICT is now at the center of education reform efforts, not all countries are currently able to benefit from this development and advances that technology can offer. Significant barriers often referred to as digital divide limit the ability of some countries to take advantage of technological development (Kozma and Anderson 2002). The developing countries are faced with challenges related to access, pedagogy or assessment when using ICTs to improve and reinforce education ( Kozma et al 2002). It is important to note that the concept, methods and application of the term ICTs are constantly evolving rapidly; starting from the popularity of the issue of computers in education in the 1980s, when relatively cheap micro-computers became available for the consumer market, later, near the end of 1980s the term was replaced by IT (Information Technology); signifying a shift of focus from computing technology to the capacity to store, analyze and retrieve information. This was followed by the introduction of the term ICTs (Information Communication Technologies) around 1992 when email and World Wide Web (Internet) became available to the general public (Pelgrum and Law 2003).