MEN’S PERCEPTION, ACCEPTANCE AND USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES IN ADO EKITI, EKITI STATE
This research sought to investigate Men’s perception, acceptance and use of contraceptives. The research was carried out Ado Ekiti.This research was guided by two theoretical frameworks: The Diffusion of Innovations Theory by Everett Rogers and The Reasoned Action Approach by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen Martin. This was a descriptive survey design research that applied the mixed mode approach to data collection. The target population comprises 3000 male and the sample size for the research was 353 which was calculated and obtained by use of Yamane formula. The participants in the study were selected by proportionate quota sampling and the data was collected at household level. The researcher therefore specified the minimum number of sample units in each quota to ensure equitable representation of males and moved from house to house to collect data. The data was collected by use of questionnaires. Pilot study was undertaken to ensure validity and reliability of the data collection tool was calculated by use of Sphearman-Brown Prophesy formula giving a reliability coefficient of 0.86. Some of ethical considerations made by the researcher included informed consent, confidentiality and respect. The returned questionnaires were sorted and data obtained organized by use of tallying method. A questionnaire return rate of 96% was achieved. Microsoft Excel was used to calculate the frequencies and the corresponding percentages; the coefficient of correlation (r) and the coefficient of determination (r2) of the variables. Tables have been used to present the data where frequencies and the corresponding percentages have been shown. The findings show that 110 (32%) of the respondents had consistently accepted the use of contraceptives in the past six months while the rest had used contraceptives at times, 168 (49%) or had not used any contraceptive in the same time period. Further, the variables under study were found to influence the use of contraceptives. The researcher recommends that more training be carried out to increase the levels of knowledge on contraceptives and contraceptive use amongst the adolescents and hence enhance the perception on men contraception, attributes of contraceptives that make them cumbersome to use need to be addressed, awareness campaigns be carried out in the general society to de- stigmatize the use of contraceptives by adolescents and affirmative action be decided upon to cushion adolescents on high cost of contraceptives.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Toure (1996) observed that, given the elevated position of men in African society, involving them and obtaining their support and commitment to family planning is of crucial importance in the African region. It was stated that, most decisions that affect family life are made by men. The 1994 ICPD and the 1995 fourth world conference on women acknowledged the role of men in improving reproductive health. Reproductive health programs are likely to be more effective for women when men are involved. The role of men in the family, their relationships with their partners, gender patterns of society, male-oriented educational programs, and counseling activities on family planning all influence men‟s knowledge and behaviour regarding family planning. Willingness of husbands to adopt or allow their spouses to use family planning practices determines the pace of fertility reduction.
According to the International Planned Parenthood Federation (1984 in Toure,1996), the involvement of men in family planning would not only ease the responsibility borne by women in terms of decision-making for family planning matters, but would also accelerate the understanding and practice of family planning in general. Men can prevent women‟s contraceptive use and they themselves are an untapped group of potential users. Males are also primarily considered as a means of increasing contraceptive prevalence. The multiple decision making roles of men in reproductive
health, particularly family planning, have profound influences on women‟s health. Family planning is key for curbing the growth rate of a population and for the health of women of reproductive age. Reproductive health programs that attempt to reach women will have a higher probability of success if they also involve the husband or at least encourage such involvement (Becker 1996 in Ogunjuyigbe, Ebenezer and Liasu 2009). Therefore, an understanding of the males influence and the role they play in decision-making on contraceptive use can throw better light on mechanisms through which fertility reduction can be achieved. The reasons to involve men in contraceptive use are not hard to find. They have been enumerated in different articles and population reports. The growing HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has engulfed a large population in Africa and elsewhere, need men use of condoms. This calls for the exercise of responsible reproductive behaviour by both men and women in prevention of further spread of the infection (Ityai 2000, Drennan 1998, Khan 1997, UNFPA 1997, Roundi and Ashford, 1996). Moreover, men represent about half of the world’s population, and use less than one-third of contraceptives, which are male methods or methods that require participation of both partners (FHI 1998, Ringheim, 1996).
The adaptation and correct use of female methods of contraception have been found to be positively affected by male involvement in contraceptive use. Moreover, men are more interested in reproductive health information than has generally been assumed (FHI 1998). A study in Gombe, Nigeria demonstrated a low number of respondents having the opinion that women have an independent right to contraceptive acceptance, choice and practice and echoed the importance of male involvement in contraception decision-making (Bukar et al., 2013). Other compelling reasons for involving men in family planning are that millions of pregnancies are unwanted each year due to lack or failure of contraception and thousands of women die due to pregnancy complications where male involvement can make difference (UNFPA, 1997 and Drennan, 1998,). This research seeks to Men’s perception, acceptance and use of contraceptives in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The minimal use of contraceptives and contraceptive use continuously exposes adolescents to primary negative sex outcomes like pregnancies and STIs like HIV. In 2012, Adolescents aged 15-19 accounted for 13% of all the new HIV infections globally (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2013). Envuladu, Agbo, Chia, Kigbu and Zoakah (2009) conducted a research on the utilization of modern contraceptives among female traders in jos, Plateau state. The study employed semi-structured questionnaires and interview, the result obtained indicated that the level of awareness of modern contraceptive was high (93.4%) and the most popular methods were male condom 95.5%, injectable 87.4% and oral contraceptive pills 85.9 while the unpopular methods were female condon 40.4%, cervical Diaphram 17.5% cervical cap 12.1% and spermide 12.6%. The study focused on the female traders leaving other women that are of reproductive age
1.3 Research Objectives
The main objectives of this study is to investigate Men’s perception, acceptance and use of contraceptives in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state
This research seeks to achieve the following objectives:
1. To establish how male perceptions influence the use of contraceptives in Ado-Ekiti
2. To determine how the access to contraceptives influence the use of contraceptives in Ado-Ekiti
3. To assess how the levels of Knowledge of men on Contraception influence the use of contraceptives in Ado-Ekiti
1.4 Research Questions
This study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. Does male perceptions influence the use of contraceptives in Ado-Ekiti
2. To determine how the access to contraceptives influence the use of contraceptives in Ado-Ekiti
3. To assess how the levels of Knowledge of men influence the use of contraceptives in Ado-Ekiti
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will provide knowledge gaps that future researchers could research on and add new knowledge to concerned fields of study. In addition, governments and nongovernmental organizations can use the knowledge generated from this study to come up with viable future public awareness, trainings and campaigns on contraceptives
1.6 Basic Assumptions of the Study
Assumptions represent the desirable scenario anticipated by the researcher. The researcher assumed that there is at least one male in every two homesteads aged 18-40 and that the participants would answer honestly. This was the case since anonymity and confidentiality was preserved. The researcher issued unmarked questionnaires. Further, the participants were volunteers who could withdraw from the study at any time and with no ramifications. Time was a constraint, the researcher made use of research assistants to maximize on time. The researcher assumed that the assuring the respondents of confidentiality would facilitate the respondents’ giving of truthful information.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
All research studies are faced with various challenges. One of such limitations is the strain of time. The researcher maximized on the time available by minimizing the data collection breaks. The researcher anticipated that the respondents might deliberately provide false data or even withhold information given the private nature of the information being sought for. The researcher assured the respondents the information they were providing would be treated with confidentiality. The researcher explained to the respondents that the questionnaires that were issued to them were unmarked and that the respondents were not required to provide any information that could be used to identify them like phone numbers, names or email addressed. Further, the researcher informed that the questionnaires would be completely destroyed after the information provided by the respondents was obtained. The topic under research sought private information that would make respondents shy away from responding. The researcher ensured that the language used in the questionnaires was kind and comfortable for the reader. For instance the introduction was worded to make the respondent at ease and create readiness to respond to the questions. Where personal and sensitive information, like the number of sexual partners or encounters a respondent had had in the past six months, the researcher provided multiple choice responses from which the respondent would choose. Such interventions made it possible that the respondents gave truthful responses