CURBING CORRUPTION FOR PEACE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Corruption is efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of public power for private benefit. Corruption like cockroaches has co-existed with human society for a long time and remains as one of the problems in many of the world’s developing economies with devastating consequences. Corruption as a phenomenon, is a global problem, and exists in varying degrees in different countries (Agbu, 2001). Corruption is not only found in democratic and dictatorial politics, but also in feudal, capitalist and socialist economies. Christian, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist cultures are equally bedeviled by corruption (Dike, 2005). Corrupt practices are not an issue that just begins today but the history is as old as the world (Lipset and Lenz, 2000).
In Nigeria, it is one of the many unresolved problems (Ayobolu, 2006) that have critically hobbled and skewed development. It remains a long-term major political and economic challenge for Nigeria (Sachs, 2007). It is a canker worm that has eaten deep in the fabric of the nation. It ranges from petty corruption to political I bureaucratic corruption or Systemic corruption (International Center for Economic Growth, 1999). World Bank studies put corruption at over $1 trillion per year accounting for up to 12% of the Gross Domestic Product of nations like Nigeria, Kenya and Venezuela (Nwabuzor, 2005).
Corruption is endemic as well as an enemy within (Agbu, 2003). It is a canker worm that has eaten deep in the fabric of the country and had stunted growth in all sectors (Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), 2005). It has been the primary reason behind the country’s difficulties in developing fast (Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), 2006). This is evident in Transparency lnternational’s consistent rating of Nigeria as one of the top three most corrupt countries in the world (Ribadu, 2003).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
- The main objectives of this study is on Curbing corruption for peace and sustainable development
The objectives of this study are:
- To explore and analyze the development of corruption in Nigeria.
- To develop insights for reducing the
- To create possible checks and balances that could see this disease to a minimum
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of corruption in Nigeria has been characterized by lack of culture of accountability, inefficiency, weak government structures, excessive concentration of power in the executive arm of government and lack of transparency.
This phenomena in governance characterize the practice of shameless act of stealing of public funds and properties, wasteful mismanagement of national resources and public asset. The fact and ubiquity of corruption in Nigeria are not in any doubt whatsoever.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Can the problem of lack of or slow development be seen in the unending struggle among Nigerians to retain or gain advantages over fellow Nigerians?
- Where, with regards to institution and organization is corruption perpetuated?
- Can widespread corruption provoke resentment and promote the chances of a revolution beneficial to the society in the long run?
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This research adopts the secondary method of data collection. This method involves a critical analysis of published data such as text books, newspapers, journals and other source of media information like the internet. Data will also be analyzed using descriptive method of analysis.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There is no doubt that the crime of corruption in government threatens the moral integrity of a nation and hampers development, this thus makes the topic of discourse significant especially looking at the global effect of corruption on democracy and development generally.
There are a number of reasons for focusing on the scope and impact of corruption in Nigeria and the difficulties in dealing with it. Nigeria occupies a central place in Africa as the most populous country, with an estimated population of over 149 million. It is one of the continent’s richest countries and is blessed with a huge diversity of natural and human resources. It is also characterized by a multiplicity of different ethnic groups. Like many mono-cultural economies in Africa, its economy is heavily dependent on crude oil. Paradoxically, it is this important natural resource that sustains corruption in Nigeria.
The significance of this study is therefore to expose the acts of the few privileged ones who find themselves in high positions of authority and the ways at which they divert the profits gotten from these natural resources for personal uses instead of using them for public purposes and how this has hampered efforts made on development.
1.8 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study examines critically Curbing corruption for peace and sustainable development. It also explores the concepts associated with corruption, outlines the debilitating effects of corruption on Nigeria. It also elaborates on the conditions that encourage the flourishing of graft in the literature.
This study, due to a number of constraints involving time and resources, especially unavailability of data, shall rely solely on secondary sources of data such as internet, journals, articles etc.