ENDSARS Protest and Political Mobilisation in Nigeria ( A case study of 2023 Presidential Election)

The END SARS protest that took place in Nigeria in 2020 was a significant turning point in the country’s political landscape. The protest, which initially began as a demand to end police brutality, evolved into a powerful movement that highlighted the deep-rooted socio-economic and political challenges faced by Nigerian citizens. This case study explores the impact of the END SARS protest on political mobilization leading up to the 2023 Presidential Election in Nigeria.


The END SARS movement emerged in response to years of unchecked police brutality and misconduct in Nigeria. The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), a unit of the Nigerian Police Force, had been accused of extortion, extrajudicial killings, and other human rights abuses. The public outcry against SARS gained momentum in October 2020 when a video of police officers shooting a young man in Lagos went viral, sparking nationwide protests.

Protest and Political Awakening:

The END SARS protest captured the attention and participation of millions of Nigerians, primarily youth, who were frustrated with the state of affairs in the country. The mobilization power of social media platforms, particularly Twitter, played a crucial role in amplifying the voices of protesters and disseminating information. The movement’s decentralized structure allowed it to spread rapidly across cities, inspiring a sense of unity and purpose among participants.

The protest was not limited to demanding an end to police brutality but also evolved into a broader call for good governance, accountability, and an end to corruption. It became a platform for young Nigerians to voice their dissatisfaction with the political establishment and demand meaningful change. The protest served as a wake-up call to both politicians and citizens, shaking the status quo and paving the way for political mobilization.

Impact on Political Landscape:

The END SARS protest had a profound impact on Nigeria’s political landscape, particularly in the lead-up to the 2023 Presidential Election. It highlighted the power of youth activism and their potential to shape political discourse and outcomes. Politicians recognized the need to engage with the demands of the protesters to secure their support.

As a response to the protest, the Nigerian government disbanded the SARS unit and made promises to implement police reform. However, the protesters were not satisfied with mere promises and called for concrete actions. This led to increased political engagement as young Nigerians sought to translate their demands into tangible political change.

The protest served as a catalyst for political awakening and increased voter registration among Nigerian youth. Many organizations and individuals mobilized to educate and register young voters, recognizing their potential to influence the outcome of the 2023 Presidential Election. Political parties also took note of the changing political landscape and began to address the concerns of the protesters in their manifestos and campaign promises.

Role of Social Media:

Social media platforms played a pivotal role in the mobilization and organization of the END SARS protest. Hashtags such as #EndSARS and #EndPoliceBrutality trended globally, drawing international attention to the cause. Activists effectively used social media platforms to share information, coordinate protest activities, and document human rights abuses.

The influence of social media continued to shape the political mobilization leading up to the 2023 Presidential Election. Politicians recognized the power of these platforms to reach and engage with the youth demographic, and many utilized social media as a key tool in their campaigns. Online discussions, debates, and discourse on various issues allowed citizens to hold politicians accountable and demand transparency and responsiveness.

The 2023 Presidential Election:

The END SARS protest had a lasting impact on the 2023 Presidential Election. Political parties and candidates recognized the need to address the demands and concerns of the protesting youth. The election campaigns focused on issues such as police reform, good governance, youth empowerment, and job creation, which were key priorities for the protesting youth.

The movement also led to the emergence of new political actors and parties that sought to represent the aspirations of the protesters. Young activists and organizers who played pivotal roles during the protest stepped forward to contest for political office or support candidates who aligned with their values. This infusion of new blood into the political arena promised a shift towards a more inclusive and responsive government.


The END SARS protest of 2020 sparked a powerful political mobilization in Nigeria, leading up to the 2023 Presidential Election. The protest served as a wake-up call for politicians, demanding an end to police brutality and systemic corruption. It empowered Nigerian youth to demand good governance, accountability, and political change. Social media platforms played a crucial role in amplifying the voices of the protesters and organizing mass demonstrations.

The impact of the END SARS protest on Nigeria’s political landscape was evident in the increased political engagement of young Nigerians and their influence on campaign agendas. Political parties and candidates recognized the power of the protesting youth and made efforts to address their concerns. The 2023 Presidential Election witnessed a shift towards more inclusive politics, with new actors emerging to challenge the status quo.

While the true extent of the protest’s impact on the election outcomes will be determined in time, it is clear that the END SARS protest fundamentally transformed the political mobilization landscape in Nigeria. It provided a platform for Nigerian citizens, particularly the youth, to demand change and actively participate in shaping the country’s future. The challenge now lies in sustaining this momentum and holding elected officials accountable for their promises.

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