Biology is a subject matter of great importance and concern to all. Biology helps to promote economic development, eliminating poverty and introducing social welfare (Nwagbo, 2005). Despite all these great things biology education can accomplish for the Nation, its improvement in Nigeria seems slim. This is due to some fundamental challenges which the paper discussed under the following headings: security, corruption, teacher, lack of proper curriculum development and inadequate fund. The paper highlights the objectives, importance, and prospects of biology education in Nigeria. Few recommendations on how to achieve biology education improvement in Nigeria were discussed. In conclusion, the government should support people in understanding and acting to transform the social, cultural, political and economic structures which affect their lives and the lives of others at personal, community, national and international levels. The paper therefore focused on the challenges and prospects of biology education in Nigeria.