KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS ON EPILEPSY AND PRACTICE ON EPILEPSY AMONG PEOPLE OF SOUT EAST NIGERIA

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Background

Epilepsy is a chronic non-communicable brain disorder, according to the World Health Organization. It had a global impact on more than 50 million individuals. Epilepsy is characterized by recurring seizures. Seizures are short bouts of uncontrollable movement that may affect one or more parts of the body and are often associated with loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function. Seizures are caused by an abnormally high rate of electrical discharges in a set of brain cells (“Epilepsy,” 2019). Additionally, it is characterized as a disorder in which continuous seizures occur in short periods and spread throughout the body, resulting in the loss of key organ functioning, altering brain processes, and resulting in repetitive seizures (Umashankar, 2017, p. 528- 547). Epilepsy is categorized into two basic groups depending on the kind of seizure. Seizures that are partial or focal in nature are classified as Simple partial seizures or Complex partial seizures. Additionally, there are generalized seizures such as tonic-clonic seizures, absence seizures, myoclonic seizures, atonic seizures, and tonic or clonic seizures (Umashankar, 2017, p. 528-547). Patients with epilepsy may suffer behavioral and cognitive difficulties. They may present with consequences such as interictal personality disorder, in which the patient develops a lack of humor, dependent obsessions, hostility, hypo or hypersexuality, and emotionality, among others. Similarly, the patient suffers memory loss, hostile behavior, secretory aspiration, fractures, shoulder dislocation, biting injuries to the tongue, lip, or cheek, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infraction, head trauma, and pulmonary edema. Whereas, emotional stress is readily generated in complicated partial seizures (Umashankar, 2017, p.528-547). Additionally, a study discovered that individuals with epilepsy had the worst communication, self-image, and future expectations, whereas handicapped adolescents communicated openly about their illness with family and friends and were the most optimistic about their social adjustments and futures in later life (Hodgman et al., 1979, p.298-304). Additionally, it has been shown that women who have epilepsy and use anti-epileptic medications are at an increased risk of preeclampsia, pregnancy hemorrhage, and premature delivery (Borthen, 2015, p. 32-34). 2 of 63 Additionally, the study examined how epilepsy can be prevented through lifestyle changes, exercise, and behavioral approaches, as well as how epileptic triggers can be avoided through sleep hygiene, abstinence from alcohol and tobacco, relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, biofeedback, and medication techniques. Similarly, exercise helps preserve physical and mental health, as do dietary measures such as fresh vegetables and fruits, as well as dietary supplements to help maintain calcium levels (Umashankar, 2017, p.528- 547). The Epilepsy Society has developed urgent recommendations for the care of epileptic patients. One should maintain composure and check for the seizure patient’s comfort. You should record both the onset and length of the seizure. Support their head with a cushion or pillow but do not attempt to impede or halt their movement. Do not provide anything by mouth during the attack; if the seizure lasts more than 5 minutes, get the patient to the hospital immediately. Assist the patient during and after a seizure episode. Following the seizure’s cessation, the person may remain disoriented, and the required precautions should be followed. Gently place them in recovery posture, check to see whether their respiration has returned to normal, and examine their mouth for obstructions such as food or artificial teeth. If breathing becomes difficult after the cessation of the seizure, the subject should be brought to the hospital. Maintain contact with them until they have completely healed (“NICE guidelines on anti-epileptic drugs,” 2019). Non-operative treatment techniques such as clonazepam, clobazam, sodium valporate, phenobarbital, levetiracetam, ethosodium, phenytoin, tiripentol, gabapentin, lacosamide, and carbamazepine have been reported to be effective8. Women are given folic acid supplements (1-4 mg per day) to reduce their risk of neural tube abnormalities (Ramaratnam, Marson, & Singh, 2017, p. 153-172). On the other hand, surgical interventions such as anteromedial temporal excision, corpus callosotomy, hemispherectomy, vagal nerve stimulation, and deep brain stimulation have been described (Ramaratnam, Marson, & Singh, 2017, p.153-172). However, the research examined how self-management assistance might be launched via behavioral modifications techniques, skill development and problem solving, action planning and goal setting (Helmers et al., 2017, p. 220-224).

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