Public Relations And Dispute Management In Public Limited Liability Company . A Study Of Dangote Cement Factory Calabar
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The role public relation is like the work of the personnel manager in an organization in relation with the workers. Hence it is a task requiring managerial judgment which places a considerable responsibility on the managers or the people involved.
According to Kevin (1974) defined public relations as interaction between human elements in an organization in their day-to-day work process.
The interaction goes beyond the institution of job rules and regulations and encompasses the existing social relation power position of the actions in the public relation system.
According to Akpala (1993). The role of public relation officer in dispute management involves in every situation a process of defining power and authority relations amongst people, management labour organization and government for job, roles and job values. Organizational dispute is the same as industrial dispute. Every human experiences has one type of period of unrest, dispute or violence. Thus, every human organization is characterized with experiences at one time or the other such as a period of dispute, violence and unrest. However, the dispute in organizations are not often backed with physical exchange of blows and fighting. Organizations are made of different persons of different characters thus, ideas and wants, demands, as well as views. The filling of unrest, the competition, the stress, the tension of being disengaged, and the insecurity of job could lead to several types of dispute. Dispute ispart of organizational life and may occur between individuals, and between groups. Whiledispute is generally perceived as dysfunctional, it can also be beneficial because it may cause an issue to be presented in different perspectives. dispute has both positive and negative effects. It can be positive when it encourages creativity, new looks at old conditions, the clarification of points of view, and the development of human capabilities to handle interpersonal differences. dispute can be negative when it creates resistance to change, establishes turmoil in organization or interpersonal relations, fosters distrust, builds a feeling of defeat, or widens the chasm of misunderstanding.
Azamosa (2004) observed that disputes involve the total range of behaviours and attitudes that is in opposition between owners/managers on the one hand and working people on the other. It is a state of disagreement over issues of substance or emotional antagonism and may arise due to anger, mistrust or personality clashes.
Two types of disputes at work have been distinguished. These are:
Otobo (2005:125) expresses that organized dispute forms part of a conscious strategy to change the situation which is identified as source of discontent. This type of dispute is thus a group activity, involving deliberate decisions taken at a mass meeting or by selected representatives of affected staff.
In unorganized dispute, the worker responds to the situation in the only way open to him as an individual, that is, by with drawing from the source of discontent, or in reaction engaging in sabotage and rudeness Agwu (2006: 12) argues that such reaction rarely derives from any real calculative strategy. Indeed, unorganized expression of dispute are often, not regarded as dispute by the persons in the situation. This is why most people may not ordinarily associate acts of rudeness with being in a state of dispute. Quite often, such rude behaviormay be attributed to “bad mood” and similar psychological states of mind. disputes in organizations, whether organized or unorganized individual or group, need to be managed effectively because of their effects on the organization.
Industrial relations is concerned with the interactions between employers and employees and their respective organizations – as influenced by governmental interventions – at work, or arising outside of the work situation. These interactions can take place at various levels.For example, between an individual employee and his or her employer within an enterprise or workplace; between a group of employees or a trade union and an individual employer; between a trade union or unions and an employers’ organization at industry or sector level; and between peak representative bodies of employees and employers at the national level.
This indicates that employee-employer interactions can be:
- individual or collective;
- within individual enterprises or workplaces;
- within groups of enterprises or industries;
- at the provincial or state level
- at the national level
Irrespective of the level of interaction, it is clear that employees and employers, and their respective organizations, have both common and disputing interests. The common interest relates to the production process, which generates the goods and/or services, and the resultant earnings that enable enterprises to survive, make profits and grow, and which at the same time, provide the means for employees to earn wages and receive benefits.
The disputing interest relates to the share of production proceeds. Employees seek to improve their wages and non-wage benefits; employers seek to improve profits and returns for the owners and shareholders. A typical example of a disputing interest is when employers seek discretion over hiring and firing, whereas workers want protection from unfair labour practices. Furthermore,dispute is considered psychologically and socially healthy. It is psychologically healthy because it provides a breather for frustrations and enables a feeling of participation and even of joy. In addition, it is sociable healthy because it encourages opposition to the status quo and provides conditions for social chances and democracy stemming from pluralism and respect to diversity.
Dispute management has been observed to be an important aspect of corporate management. Ugbaja (2002)notes that the aim of dispute management is not to create an ideal corporate situation since that is not attainable given the divergences in the individuals goals, etc. However, dispute management systematically uses the available dispute resolution strategies to build an effective mechanism
m for dispute management in corporate organizations. Although there may be existing mechanism and procedures already in place to deal with disputes whenever they occur, some organizations with reactive managers rise to the situation when it occurs.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Organizational dispute remains a two-way mechanism for organizational efficiency. While some persons see dispute or conflict as a threat to organizational growth and performance, other view it a s mechanism for efficiency and growth. The diversity in the views of scholars and the need to specifically identify the performance effect and causative impact of industrial dispute necessitated this study. This diversity has led to the questions are they difference perception among firms and individuals which has occasioned this diversity among scholars? If there is what actually is the influential or determining factor?
Unfortunately, the term “dispute” has only the connotation of “bad” for many people; so much so that they think principally in terms of suppression, giving little or no attention to its more positive side. Rico (1964) as cited in Hotepo (2010) emphasizes this by stating that it seems entirely likely that many, if not most, organizations need more dispute, not less. This view supports industrial dispute. However, the question remains is industrial dispute bad? Are there positive effect of industrial dispute on organizations?
Tjosvold (1998) complements this statement arguing that dispute is not the opposite of cooperation but a mechanism that allows perceiving benefits of cooperative work. Furthermore, dispute is considered psychologically and socially healthy. It is psychologically healthy because it provides a breather for frustrations and enables a feeling of participation and even of joy. And it is sociable healthy because it encourages opposition to the status quo and provides conditions for social chances and democracy stemming from pluralism and respect to diversity. In all what most people view as negative others view as positive.
However, Azamosa (2004) observed that dispute s involve the total range of behaviors and attitudes that is in opposition between owners/managers on the one hand and working people on the other. It is a state of disagreement over issues of substance or emotional antagonism and may arise due to anger, mistrust or personality clashes. Disputes in organizations have destabilizing effects on the overall performance of the organization. It leads to under performance since valuable time and resources (human and material) are used in controlling and managing disputes rather than in enhancing output and productivity. disputes also lead to interpersonal disharmony in the organization which makes attainment of organizational goals difficult. Attaining organizational goals is possible if efforts are always made to reduce the overall level of dispute within the organization but to what extent is this view feasible? And to what extent does it affect organizational performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of his study is to investigate Publc Relations And Dispute Management In Public Limited Liability Company . A Study Of Dangote Cement Factory Calabar
The following objective of the study are as follows:
- To determine maximum training levels and provide basis for sound management development programmes.
- To help to ensure optimum use of human resources currently employed.
- To provide for the future manpower needs of the organization in terms of skills numbers and ages.
- To put to an end inordinate cause of crisis in our organization.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is mainly on the effect of public relation in managing crisis in Dangote Cement Factory Calabar Local Government Area. With the view that it will provide a snapshot to correcting the abnormality in other institution and Nigeria at large. This study is further limited to the importance of human interaction and job performance in Dangote Cement Factory Calabar.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This work is of immersed important to public liability company, it shall provide possible remedies to the problem of manpower development and need, vise versa via job performance, it shall also put to a stop the possible causes or organization crisis and usher-in good working environment.
Academically, the work is of importance because it shall act as basis by which other students will lay hand and for further research on similar topics.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Does good public relation practice lead to effective dispute management in Dangote Cement Factory Calabar
- Is it proper to invite a third party in setting crisis in Dangote Cement Factory Calabar.
- What are the roles of staff motivation towards dispute management
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
HO: A good public relation practices leads to an effective dispute management in Dangote Cement Factory Calabar.
HI: Good public relation does not have any relation with effective dispute management but dependention on other variable.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
This work is greatly limited by the following.
- Time; Due to time factor, the researcher concentrated and selected few banks as a case study. However, the periodwas well managed as telephone conversation and interviews were conducted within the duration rather than wait to ascertain and reach out to all the banks.
Finance; there is financial constrain during the period of this research. The researcher was able to come out of this through the help of friends and family members
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Management: This means a kind of work that involves organization goals or objectives.
- Organization: It is a set of interrelated compound working together to accomplish some goals
- Public: It means the citizens of a given area, the people of town, region, state or country.
- Public relation: This means the interaction between human elements in an organization their day-to-day work process.
- Questionnaire: It is an instrument of data collection used for the research work.
- Managers: Is defined as a person employed to carry out some managerial functions.