Information and communication technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that includes the manipulation or application of any communication device encompassing radio, television, telephones, fax machines, cellular phones, computers, computer accessories, computers network, hardware and software, satellite systems as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video-conferencing and distance learning. It is a system of computer and telecommunication technologies that are used in the acquisition, analysis and transmission of information to ensure effective and efficient administration of organizations. The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2002) defined ICT as the range of technologies that are applied to the process of collecting, storing, editing, retrieving and transfer of information in various forms.
Operationally, information and communication technology is the combination of networks, hardware and software, as well as means of communication, collaboration and engagement that enable the processing, management, and exchange of data, information and knowledge between individuals and institutions for effective and efficient management. Indeed, people in organizations can only do their work effectively if they receive accurate and timely information (Maki, 2008). (Maki, 2008). This is so because organizations and schools depend on information systems to support the flow of data, information and knowledge.
In order to achieve effective data collection, data entry and data flow for making internal processes more powerful, it is necessary to utilize ICT in school administration. Adeyemi and Olaleye (2010) stated that ICT is necessary in the areas of budgeting, collection and keeping of students’ data, collection of staff data, recording of results and effective keeping of school records. Nwosu (2003) noted that ICT assists the school administrator to meet the tasks of school management in the areas of curriculum and instruction, school-community relationship and school business operations. Mohammed (2006) observed that the introduction of ICT in schools enhance the daily routine, programmes, updating the evaluation of school programmes and solving individual, group and staff development challenges. This study will explore the utilization of ICT in secondary school administration in Mushin Local Government Area.
The use of ICT in the school administration is fast becoming an indispensible tool for teachers and administrators. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) observed that the ability to access and use information is no longer a luxury, but a necessity for development (Adomi and Kpangban, 2010). (Adomi and Kpangban, 2010). This assertion has implications on our school system, as it implies that the effective use of ICT is currently a prerequisite not only for sustainable development but also for effective and efficient school administration
The current developments in Nigeria have made it even more pertinent for the use of ICT in secondary school administration. This include the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) plan to introduce computer-based tests in the 2013 University Matriculation Examinations (Ezeike, 2012) and various public and private establishments that currently conduct ICT-based job advertisements, applications and assessments for secondary school leavers. Students who attend schools with inadequate information and communication technology resources may find that they are unable to enter universities, view job advertisements, apply for jobs and examinations, or pass examinations due to a lack of adequate exposure to the appropriate ways that ICT can be utilized. In the long run, this might cause students to leave such schools in search of others that are more focused on producing results in their education. It is possible that secondary schools that do not embrace the innovations that are inherent in the utilization of ICT will not survive in light of these realities. This is due to the fact that ICT is considered to be part of an extensive modernization of administration and education.
Despite the significance of information and communications technology (ICT) in the management of schools, a number of education experts remain concerned about the state of affairs in Nigerian educational institutions. According to Etudor-Eyo, Ante, and Emah (2011), the administration of secondary schools in Nigeria is largely dominated by the use of manual or analogue operational methods. This is evidenced by the fact that secretaries and typists who are still working with obsolete typewriters are common sights in the offices of the majority of, if not all, of the principals. In order to shed more light on the assertion made by Etudor–Eyo, Ante, and Emah that has already been cited, this study will investigate the use of digital technologies in the secondary schools that are being studied.