Production and Characterization of cellulase enzyme from Aspergillus species using Cyperus esculentus
Biotechnology has the ability to create a vast variety of products to satisfy different human needs. Enzyme technology, a subfield of biotechnology, has developed and is still developing new processes to produce both bulk and high value-added products using enzymes as biocatalysts in order to meet the demands for things like food (bread, cheese, beer, vinegar), fine chemicals (such as amino acids, vitamins), and pharmaceuticals. Enzymes may be used for analytical and diagnostic reasons in addition to cleaning and environmental procedures.
The advancement of enzyme technology in academia and industry has been and will continue to be driven by the improvement of current production processes to produce new goods from novel raw materials, such as biomass, or by the development of new, better products, processes, and services to meet these needs. These strategies will be used to create innovative, sustainable goods and processes. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) created the idea of sustainability to promote the necessary “development that fulfills the demands of the present without sacrificing the capacity of future generations to satisfy their own needs.” The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international agreement that regulates the transfer of living modified organisms (LMOs) made possible by modern biotechnology from one nation to another, presently includes this description. It was approved on September 11, 2003, and on January 29, 2000, it was added to the Convention on Biological Diversity. 160 states have now approved it.
Biochemical catalysts known as enzymes are regarded as gifts from nature. Inside the cells, they operate like protein robots, speeding up biological processes without changing them (Lanka and Latha, 2015). Scientific research, cosmetic manufacturing, medical diagnostics, chemical analysis, medicinal uses, and industrial catalysis all make extensive use of enzymes (Sharma et al 2001b).
These beneficial compounds were created by using the cellulase enzyme to bioconvert lignocellulosic material. The local economy, ecology, and safety of the country’s energy supply would all gain from the production of biobased goods and bioenergy from less costly renewable lignocellulosic materials (Zhang, 2008). Numerous fungi generate the enzymes needed to convert proteins and polysaccharides into digestible sugars and amino acids. These enzymes are essential to the economy. Submerged fermentation (SmF), which often uses highly adapted and genetically altered bacteria, is used to create around 90% of all commercial enzymes. Thanks to SmF technology, solid state fermentation offers an unsurpassed edge in this sector (SSF). It’s noteworthy to note that recent studies on SSF of fungi, yeasts, and bacteria have shown a range of metabolic activities in both solid state and submerged fermentation environments.
Enzymes called cellulases break down the -1,4 bonds in cellulose strands. They are made by animals, plants, bacteria, protozoa, fungus, and bacteria. Different groups of catalytic modules of cellulases have been identified based on their crystal structures and amino acid composition (Henrissat, 1989). Cellobiohydrolases (CBHs), exoglucanases, and -glucosidase are the three main cellulase types that contribute to the whole cellulose hydrolysis process in nature. Microorganisms must produce these cellulases in order to hydrolyze and metabolize insoluble cellulose, maybe with the exception of BG, which is either free or bound to the cell surface.
Despite the fact that only 2% of the world’s microorganisms have been identified as sources of enzymes, microbial enzymes have a number of advantages over enzymes derived from plants and animals, including a higher potential for catalytic diversity, higher productivity in a short amount of time, ease of genetic manipulation/optimization, independence from seasonal fluctuations, and rapid growth of the producing microorganism (Wiseman, 1995)