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Election: Definition & Functions of Election


The staff can select their representative through a formal procedure of collective decision-making. Democracy is based on elections, which provide the populace the power to select their leaders. is a methodical procedure for choosing a candidate for public office. A populace selects a person to hold public office through a formal voting procedure called an election.

Functions of Election

  • It empowers people to choose the leaders they want and hold them responsible for their actions while in government.
  • It aids in the facilitation of political and social integration.
    Voting gives people a chance to express themselves and satisfies their need to feel like they belong by allowing them to express their partisanship.
  • It is a tool for identifying and selecting candidates for political office.
  • It helps to bring about or ensure a smooth change of government.
  • It guarantees that the public will accept political leaders.
  • It contributes to ensuring political stability.
  • It enables complete public participation in national governance, particularly among voters.


The Effect of Chatbot in academic performance of college students

The Effect of Chatbot in academic performance of college students


Chatbots are swiftly taking over a number of areas, including medical, the product and service sector, and education. Chatbots are computer systems that can converse orally and in text. The way that students learn and conduct information searches may change as a result of these programs, according to a growing body of study. In large-scale learning environments with more than 100 students per professor, chatbots can help with the problem of personalised student support.

Chatbots are computer programs that mimic human discussions through text or voice exchanges (Rouse, 2017). This definition states that chatbots are any type of software that enables people to have a conversation with a computer. Talkbots are included in this.

Various terms for chatbots include conversational agents, artificial conversational entities, and virtual assistants like Google Home or Alexa from Amazon. Chatbots are frequently employed in dialog systems for a variety of functions, such as information gathering and customer assistance (Serban et al., 2017).

Important of Chatbots in Education

  • Interaction among students
  • inquiry about courses
  • Paasing of information to students
  • Answers questions of school fes registration
  • Responds to student’s urgent need
  • Helps tacher to know the demands of student


Advice and Strategies To Earn Legitimaely Online Income 2023

We all have tried to make a living online we have been in some cases and also failed in some.

Dos and Don'ts in Online Income 2023

If someone have shown you a business that have worked for you thank God but if in any case you have lost money through a business shared, just know that that was not your luck. This is 2023 we have to keep on striving for the better version of ourselves we also need to trade and invest wisely if you dont try you will not know.


Dos and Don’ts in Online Income 2023

  • learn a high digital paying skills(forex trading crypto trading funnel building graphic design and lots more)
  • Try as much as possible to stay away from high ROI systems
  • learn to invest in real physical viable investment such as in real estate agriculture etc. be patient and accept those 10,20 and even 25% return on investment per annum.
  • It’s better to have low interest rate on your investment and have your capital than not to even have your capital at all in the name of high roi system( shape shape).
  • know that every business b online or physical has a level of risk therefore you need to calculate your weight never invest more than you can afford to lose.



In regards to investing not more than what you can afford to lose it means if that investment goes bad will that be the end of you?

And lastly forget what people are saying invest in cryptocurrency, start mining cryptocurrency talking of retirement cryptocurrency is one of the easiest tool that anyone can use to retire early and wealthy. Although with the right information at the right place or with the right system.

Happy New Year




Best 2023 Unlimited Data Plan for Airtel Netwok in Nigeria

Best 2023 Unlimited Data Plan for Airtel Netwok in Nigeria

For your smartphone, get the most recent Airtel Cheap Data Plan. However, it doesn’t matter if you surf on your PC using the inexpensive data plan. Just adhere to the recommendations in this post.

Whether you want to know some excellent Airtel data USSD codes that offer more data value at lower prices, or if you’re seeking for inexpensive and affordable Airtel data plans to buy as an active Airtel subscriber.

Best 2023 Unlimited Data Plan for Airtel Netwok in Nigeria

You are on the right page, and I’m happy to tell you that since I’ll be walking you through some inexpensive data plans from Airtel.

I’ve included a comprehensive list of all Airtel cheap data plans in this page, together with information on their costs, USSD subscription numbers, and their duration of validity.

Recently disclosed subscription figures.

Today, Airtel Nigeria is regarded as one of the top telecom providers in Nigeria and other nations. This is evident when you read an in-depth analysis of their offerings and consider how reasonably priced the majority of their data plans are.

Here are a few of the inexpensive data plans offered by Airtel.

1. Airtel My Offer Cheap Data Plan

The cheapest data packages available on the Airtel network for a small fee are Airtel My Offer Data Plans. Nevertheless, depending on how frequently you use your line while recharging, your offer stage changes.

Below are the available offers you can get cheaply on the Airtel My Offer data plan.

  • 500MB – N100 – 7 days
  • 1GB – N200-  7 days
  • 5GB – N300 – 7 days
  • 5GB – N1000 – 14 days

Simply dial *141*1# and enter either (1, 2, or 3), depending on the data bundle you wish to sign up for, to subscribe to Airtel My Offer data bundles.

2. Daily/Weekly Bundles

inexpensive Airtel Depending on the data bundle you select, the data plans in this section are valid either daily or weekly. The data plans included with this package are listed below.

  • N50 – 40MB – Daily
  • N100 – 100MB – Daily
  • N200 – 200MB – 3 Days
  • N300 -350MB – 7 Days
  • N500 – 750MB – 14 Days
  • N300 – 1GB – Daily
  • N500 – 2GB – Daily

To subscribe to this cheap Airtel data plan, just dial this USSD code *141# and reply with “2” (a list of all the data offers as shown). Now reply with the data package you are comfortable with.

3. Airtel Cheap Weekly Bundles

The Airtel Weekly Bundle section can be used for 5 days, 7 days, or 14 days. Below is a list of the data bundle.

  • N500 – 750MB -14 days
  • N500 – 1GB -7 days
  • N1500 – 6GB – 7 days
  • N300 – 350MB – 7 days
  • N100 – All Social 5 days

To subscribe, just dial *141# and reply with “2” and “2” again, and you will see all available data plans as shown. Now select the one you want to purchase.

4. Airtel Data++

For frequent data users, the Airtel network offers Data++. Nevertheless, I believe it to be superior to Airtel’s monthly data plans. Here is a complete list of the affordable data plans from Airtel that are part of this package.

  • N500 – 2.5GB (2 days)
  • N3000 – 11GB (30 days)
  • N4000 – 15GB (30 days)
  • N5000 – 22GB (30 days).

Just dial this 3-digit USSD code (*141#) and send using your Airtel SIM.

Now, reply with 2>>4, and you will be on a page indicating all the above-listed plans. Purchase and leave the page.

Summary of findings

Many individuals chose the Airtel network because of its reliability and usability. The bulk of these Airtel customers, however, are unaware of how to access cheap data through Airtel. That’s why I prepared this article, so you could quickly find out what you needed to know about the Airtel inexpensive data plan.

I was able to put together a list of Airtel’s affordable data plans. It is highly valuable and very reasonably priced. You can select a plan based on how much data you use.

Impact of social media on interpersonal communication among secondary school students

Background of the Study

 Background of the Study section compromises the following sub-sections: Communication, Inter-personal Communication, Social Network SiteCommunication, which has an inter-disciplinary importance, is a fundamental concept in peoples’ lives.

Communication is one those human activities that everyone recognizes but few can define satisfactorily. Communication is talking to one another, it is television, it is spreading information, it is our hair style, and it is literary criticism: it is endless (Fiske, 1990, p.1)

Interpersonal communication takes place between two or more people who know each other or are willing to communicate with each other. People, who have benefits from each other, can communicate via telephone, internet, and face to face. In fact, the most important one is interpersonal communication which takes place among people. According to Güngör (2011) for interpersonal communication to take place, a minimum number of two and a maximum number of five people must participate. This is a prerequisite for interpersonal communication

According to Hartley, interpersonal communication is examined under the discipline of communication. Inter-personal communication;

  • “requires a high degree of confidence,
  • prepares each person to discuss openly about their feelings and personal history,
  • creates a genuine and mutual liking and interest between participants.” (Trans.: Sevük. T., Hartley; 2010, 42).


Background of the study


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) a metabolic disorder of the pancreas has emerged as one of the public health challenges in recent times. Of the three major types of DM, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has emerged as the most prevalent accounting for between 85 to 95% of all DM cases worldwide. Kumar , Ankushe , Doibale (2018)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) can be described as a group of metabolic diseases indicated by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion, action or both. There are a number of pathogenic pathways by which diabetes can develop, resulting in different types of DM with the common ones being type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Kharroubi (2018). T2DM is the most common type of DM; 90% of DM cases are T2DM. It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. By the year 2030, it is estimated that 439 million people will acquire T2DM Ong and Lai (2017).


According to a study done in 2016 on 2082 participants, the prevalence of diabetes in Brunei Darussalam was 9.7% in which diabetes was indicated as having fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L. It has been stated that despite the success in controlling communicable diseases, there was an epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the sultanate, including T2DM. The prevalence of diabetes in Brunei Darussalam is lower in comparison to the neighbouring countries, Singapore and Malaysia, with 11% and 18% of diabetes prevalence, respectively. However, considering that obesity has been linked to be a risk factor for T2DM, the prevalence of obesity in Brunei Darussalam, 28%, ranks highest among Southeast Asian countries. A weighted measurement by the study had confirmed the extensive presence of key risk factors, such as smoking and obesity, and morbidities in relation to NCD in Brunei Darussalam. The standardized methodology used in the study is important for the surveillance of public health interventions as it provides policy makers with the ability to better evaluate public health needs, identify priority settings and set proper and relevant objectives Ong, and Lai (2017)


Diabetes mellitus has been the third leading cause of death in Brunei Darussalam since 2012, accounting for 10.1% of the total deaths nationwide in 2017. This is an increase from the 2016 mortality rate from diabetes mellitus, which was 9.1%.


Despite the efforts made by the government, there is still the need to involve other relevant stakeholders to cooperate and engage in these pursuits to raise diabetes awareness, empower the people to make healthy decisions, and ultimately control the prevalence of diabetes in Brunei Darussalam (Brudirect, 2022).


Patients’ knowledge in compliance towards the management of DM is necessary by patient on their medication for correct use. This includes the therapeutic goal, dosage, times to take it, safety, and its conservation methods in addition to possible interactions and adverse reactions.


Patient’s compliance can be measured by the accuracy, regularity and willingness he/she demonstrates in execution of the prescribed therapeutic regimen in terms of taking medications, following diet, keeping appointments, and executing other lifestyle changes Paola,  Fernanda Pinto et al (2018) . Many causes may underlie poor compliance. These include forgetfulness, poor rapport with physician, few symptoms, concomitant chronic illness, perceived lack of effect, real or perceived side-effects, unclear instructions or purpose of treatment. They may also involve physical difficulties such as opening medicine containers, handling small tablets, swallowing difficulties, and travel to place of treatments.

Poor patient medication knowledge may result in a decrease in medication’s effectiveness, the emergence of other health issues, medication misuse, as well as negative results linked to medication such as adverse drug reaction Gudeta, Mechal (2019). Adverse drug reaction is considered as an important public health concern as its incidence is prevalent.

Sound medication knowledge has been demonstrated to be positively corresponded with a better quality of life, treatment compliance, and achieving desirable results in pharmacotherapy. This is therefore crucial in disease management and in combating the frequency of adverse drug reactions Rubio, García-Delgado, Iglésias, Mateus, Martínez,(2015). One of the prerequisites for a patient’s involvement in reducing medication error is proper patient education. Despite this, there is not much research that assesses patient medication knowledge in hospitals. A large number of outpatients are subjected to polypharmacy and this can increase the risk of other health issues such as drug interactions and the possibility of toxicity Ramia, E.; Zeenny, R.M.; Hallit, S.; Salameh(2017). To further examine the aforementioned issues, the objectives of this project were to evaluate Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in tuberculosis patien


National Open University 2023-2024 Postgraduate and undergraduate courses offered In Nigeria

National Open University 2023-2024 Postgraduate and undergraduate courses offered In Nigeria

Do you want to learn more about the undergraduate and graduate programs offered by the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) for the 2023-2024 academic year?

We have the most recent lists, which include all of the courses approved by the school senate for the 2023-2024 academic year.

As a result, the Nounportal.org team wishes to inform and notify all members of the general public, particularly all interested applicants, that the list of undergraduate and postgraduate programs offered at the institution has been made public online, here on projectstore

School of Science and Technology:

MSc. Information Technology
PGD. Information Technology
PGD. Digital Communication
PGD. Mobile (Wireless) Communication Technology
PDG. Agric and Extension


BSc. Mathematics
BSc. Computer and Mathematics (Combined Hons)
BSc. Computer Science
BSc. Data Management
BSc. Communications Technology
BSc. Agricultural Extension and Management
BSc. Nursing Science
BSc. Community Health
BSc. Environmental Science and Resource Management (ESM)
BSc. Financial Mathematics
BSc. Physics
BSc. Chemistry
BSc. Biology

School of Health Sciences:

PGD HIV/AIDS Education and Management


B.Sc. Community Health
B.Sc. Dental Technology
B.Sc. Environmental Health

School of Agricultural Sciences:


B. Agric. Agricultural Economics and Agro Business
B. Agric. Agricultural Extension and Rural Development
B. Agric. Animal Science
B. Agric. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management
B. Agric. Soil and Land Resources Management
B. Agric. Crop Production and protection Sciences


PGD Agricultural Extension and Management

School of Law:


LLB (Law)


PGD Legislative Drafting

School of Education:


Science Education
B.Sc. (Ed.) Agricultural Science
B.Sc. (Ed.) Biology
B.Sc. (Ed.) Chemistry
B.Sc. (Ed.) Integrated Science
B.Sc. (Ed.) Computer Science
B.Sc. (Ed.) Mathematics
B.Sc. (Ed.) Physics
B.Sc. (Ed.) Business Education

Arts & Humanities Education

B.A (Ed.) Early Childhood Education
B.A (Ed.) English
B.A (Ed.) French
B.A (Ed.) Primary Education


Education (PGDE)
Dist. Edu (PGDDE)
M.Ed. Educational Administration and Planning
M.Ed. Science Education
M.Ed. Educational Technology
Ph.D Educational Administration, Educational Planning, Educational Technology, Mathematics Education, Science Education.

School of Management Sciences:


B.Sc. Cooperatives Management
B.Sc. Entrepreneurship
B.Sc. Accounting (in Collaboration with ICAN)
B.Sc. Hospitality Management


PGD Financial Management, Public Administration, Business Administration
Master of Public Administration (MPA)
Master of Business Administration (MBA)
Master of Science Public Sector Management
Master of Science Public Administration
Master of Science Business Administration

School of Arts and Social Sciences:


B.Sc. Criminology and Security Studies
B.Sc. Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution
B.Sc. Mass Communication
B.A. English
B.A French and International Relations
B.A Christian Theology
B.A Islamic Studies
B.Sc. Political Science


PGD in Criminology and Security Studies, Journalism and Mass Communication, Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, Christian Theology.
M.Sc. Mass Communication
M.Sc. Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution
Ph.D in English (Language/ Literature)

Centre for Life-Long Learning and Workplace Training:

Certificate Programmes
Proficiency Certificate in Call Centre Skills, Mobile Phone Repair
University (Academic) Certificate Programmes
Computer Literacy
Dental Office Practice
Arabic and Islamic Studies
Christian Theology
Hotel and Catering Management
Business Administration

Business Communication
Financial Management
Medical Office Practice
Arabic and Islamic Studies
Christian Theology
Hotel and Catering Management.



Work and Study in Canada: What to Know and How to Apply For Canada Visa

Canada observes a corresponding rise in the number of immigrants. This is largely a result of Canada’s friendliness and hospitality. Statistics also show that the proportion of older men and women to genuine youths is absurdly large.

Other than that, Canada is a great option for anyone who want to study there due to the kindness of Canadians toward immigrants and the country itself for immigrants. In Canada, you also have the option of working part-time for up to twenty (20) hours a week while you are a student.

You might be interested to know that you can work full time without owning a residence during specified school breaks and holidays. Any employment offer primarily serves the purpose of networking. Working in Canada affords you the opportunity to interact, network, and meet new people every day.

Additionally, working in Canada gives you the chance to meet new people and develop relationships that may one day be important. Working while you are a student can help you sustain yourself, establish new friends, and develop the contacts and experience that could help you stand out in the future job market.


Before you can be allowed to work in Canada as immigrants wishing to get a degree, you must be registered full-time in a Designated Learning Institution (DLI) and have a study permit.

In conclusion, you are free to work for any company in any location across Canada. You may choose to work both on and off campus. If you work on campus, your employer must be there as well, however if you work off campus, your employer must be there as well.

NOTE: As an immigrant seeking to work and study in Canada, this does not imply that the necessity for a statement of account will be waived when you apply for a study visa. It’s not true, no.

You must have appropriate financial documentation proving your ability to cover your living expenses while studying in Canada, even without working there. When you receive your study permission, it will be made clear whether you are permitted to work in Canada while you are a student or not, along with any restrictions.

You can apply for a Social Insurance Number, which is a crucial necessity for anyone who wants to work, if you meet the conditions attached, which are presented in the form of a statement.

2. Designated Learning Institution (DLI)

Any Canadian institution that has received the government’s mark of approval to accept a foreign student falls under this category. These educational institutions include elementary, secondary, and a few post-secondary institutions.NOTE: Not all schools in Canada are DLIs, so check and confirm before submitting your application as to which institutions are included.


1.Acceptance Letter.: this is a document containing your letter of admission
2.Proof of Funds
3.Birth certificate
4. Marriage certificate (if married)


1.Choose a Program
2.Send Your Application to the school
3.Apply for Study Permit

Note: Only when you have been offered admission into any of the DLIs are you permitted to apply for a study permit. A study Permit is a document that grants you permission to work in Canada while studying.


Canada offers affordable education compared to other nations. The average cost of attending school in Canada is 27,200 Canadian dollars.

As an international student studying in Canada, you have access to the country’s free public healthcare system and are required to obtain health insurance.


The processing period for the Canadian study permit varies, thus there is no set amount of time. This frequently depends on the nation from which you are applying as well as the volume of applications.

Processing, however, might take as little as 2 weeks or as long as 16 weeks.


Studying in Canada is relatively cheap compared to other countries. Averagely, studying in Canada takes up to 27,200 Canadian dollars.

In Canada, as an international student, you have access to the free public healthcare system in Canada must have healthcare coverage.


Quite a number of people do not know if global certifications like TOEFL, GRE, and rest are a requirement to study in Canada. Well, to study in Canada, you have to be proficient in either English. DLIs have different requirements and s such, make due research as regards your preferred institution before you proceed.


The answer to the above question is simply, Yes. This letter is so crucial and it forms an integral part of your study permit application. This letter is like the terms and conditions or agreement of a contract. It is simply stating that you will depart for your country as soon as your study permit expires.


Below is the list of all most recognized Universities in Canada

1.University of Toronto – 20,000+ students
2.University of British Columbia (UBC)- 16,000+ students
3.McGill University – 12,000+ students
4.University de Montreal – 9,500+

In conclusion, Canada is a homely place where working as well as studying is easy as long as you follow the rules and guidelines.

Good luck with your application.



Language is the major tool of communication in human society and speech occupies a major position in most discussions of language as a communicative medium. One of the major characteristics of man, according to Mgbodile (1999), is his ability to use language to send messages about objects, events and situations around him. Speech is what distinguishes man from other animals. Speech is paramount to any language and knowledge of the English Language cannot be appreciably good without effective manipulation of the speech sounds, for linguistics competence, according to  Chukwuma,H and Otagburuagu,E(1997), is based mainly on oracy. So, the mastery of English is highly connected to the mastery of the spoken form of it.

From the early age, a normal child responds to the sounds which his elders use to communicate with him. In his bid to communicate and get his needs identified and satisfied, the child begins to imitate the sounds which he has heard from his elders. His dire need to communicate with the adult community and his constant hearing and imitation of the language make it possible for him to acquire his mother tongue or his first language. Ogbuehi (2003) asserts that every normal child acquires the sound system and the speech patterns of his mother tongue in a normal way through imitation of sounds from adult group.

On the other hand, learning to speak a second language or foreign language usually involves some rigours and challenges because the learner has to learn the sound systems and the prosodic features of the second language against the already firmly consolidated first language in the mind of the learner. The problem is partly that some languages are tonal and syllable-timed and others are stress-timed and various speech sounds have distinctive acoustic properties. The adjustment to these differences may lead to a mismatch and therefore the learner may produce sounds that cannot be understood by other users of the same language. Onuigbo (1990) asserts that learning to speak a second language is psychologically demanding because the learner already feels comfortable towards the phonological systems of his native language. Mackey (1965) agrees that a person who has been using only one language since early childhood has habits and thoughts which are closely tied to his habits of language, and that language is a part of his experience. He concludes that in learning a second language, the learner has to adjust his speech habits to accommodate those of the target language. This according to Otagburuagu and Okorji (2002) is because languages have their individual peculiar phonological and phonemic features which must be mastered and used by the learner for mutual intelligibility with the native speakers and other users of the language.




One of the crucial organizational activities that must take place as a corporation expands and flourishes is the delegation of responsibilities (Akrani, 2010). Anyone who is willing to put up the work and practice necessary to master and refine this managerial skill can do so (Curtis & Nicholl 2004). Although the role of delegation in the nursing profession is not new, it is becoming more crucial as the field experiences fast change. The emphasis of the reforms is on the mix of skills, the organization of care, and the growing significance of nurses. The success of this function depends on both the delegator and the delegate having a clear understanding of their respective responsibilities.

Effective delegation, according to Okoronkwo (2005), is the organizational procedure that enables the transfer of authority and responsibility from an executive to the subordinate. According to the author, this establishes the subordinate’s accountability and gives her the power to use discretion on behalf of the superior. A duty or obligation to do or accomplish a work (made by one’s own presumption or circumstance, or one that has been assigned by another person) satisfactorily is known as responsibility. Failing to do so will result in a punishment. Giving someone a task from the delegater’s practice is a definition of effective delegation of responsibilities (Weydt, 2010). It could also be seen as the delegation of control to someone else for the accomplishment of a


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